How to cite this article;
A G Subakti, A Pratomo, I Triana, & I Khrisnanto. (2017). Site Attraction as a Representation of Heritage Tourism; Case Study of Gunung Padang Site, Cianju, West- Java. Proceeding of The 4th Friendly City International Conference (Scopus). Universitas Sumatera Utara. October 11st, 2017. Medan. Indonesia
SITE ATTRACTION AS A REPRESENTATION OF HERITAGE TOURISM:
CASE STUDY OF GUNUNG PADANG SITE, CIANJUR, WEST – JAVA
A G Subakti1 *, Aditya Pratomo1, Ika Triana2 , and Iwan Khrisnanto1
1Hotel Management Department, Faculty of Economics and Communication,
Bina Nusantara University, Jln KH Syahdan No 9, Kemanggisan, Palmerah, Jakarta 11480, Indonesia
2Management Department, BINUS Business School, Undergraduate Program,
Bina Nusantara University, Jln KH Syahdan No 9, Kemanggisan, Palmerah, Jakarta 11480, Indonesia
Abstract. Heritage Tourism is used for experiencing the heritage of city, region, state or country. This travel enables the tourist to learn about local customs, traditions, history and culture. One of the tourist attractions in Cianjur, where an ancient historical megalithic site named Situs Gunung Padang could be found. Situs Gunung Padang which consists of five terraces and five levels, completely built stones. This site is the largest megalithic site in Southeast Asia. There is an enormous tourism potential owned by this site because it expresses and preserving ancient Sundanese cultural in the megalithic era. But the potential of this site seems haven’t made as a tourist attraction compared with Borobudur or Prambanan Temple. The purpose of this research is to analyze the existence of Gunung Padang site as a heritage tourism with SWOT approach to discover what factors need to be repaired. The result of this research is showing that Gunung Padang site has a huge potential if the regional governments and the locals can contribute to preserve and making this site as a tourist attraction.
Over the last 60 years, tourism has evolved into one of the world’s most powerful, yet controversial, socio-economic forces. As ever greater numbers of people have achieved the ability, means and freedom to travel, not only has tourism become increasingly democratized, but also both the scale and scope of tourism have grown remarkably (Telfer, 2016). Destinations depend on their primary tourism products as key pull factors motivating tourists to visit them (Benur, 2015), tourism industry indirectly give a significant role for the development of Indonesian culture as by the presence of tourist attractions, it can introduce a diversity of culture such as traditional arts, the ceremonies religion or customary that attracts attention to foreign and local tourist. With the rapid development of the tourism industry, it will bring insight and understanding among cultures through the interaction of Tourism visitors (Tourist) with the local communities. From the interaction the visitors can recognize and respect culture local citizens and understanding background local culture which is embraced by those societies. Tourism can be described as an activity which is serviced by a number of other industries such as hospital and transport. (Horner, 2016). Tourism also a collection of activities, services and industries which deliver a travel experience comprising transportation, accommodation, eating and drinks establishments, retail shops, entertainment business and other hospitality services provides for individual or group travelling away from home. Basically, a tourism destination is a geographic area that attracts visitors, but more needs to be added to this destination. The key characteristic of a tourism destination (Morrison, 2013):
- A geographic area which has an administrative boundary or boundaries. This ranges from the largest country in the world (Russia) to the smallest like Monaco and the Vatican City. States, provinces, territories, regions, countries, and cities within individual countries can also be destinations
- A place where tourist can find overnight accommodations: These are typically hotels, but there may be many other forms of accommodation. Some of the visitors may be day-trippers, so not all of them necessarily stay overnight
- A destination mix is available for visitors: There are other facilities for tourists apart from overnight accommodations, including restaurants. Most important in drawing tourists are the attractions and events. Transportation, infrastructures, and hospitality resources are other elements of the destinations mix
- A tourism marketing effort exists: Steps have been taken to market and promote the place to tourists
- A coordinating organization structure has been created: A destination management organization (DMO) leads and coordinates the tourism efforts of the place
- An image exists of the place in tourists ‘mind: People have perceptions about what the place has to offer for tourism. These images may be accurate or inaccurate
- Government agencies have introduced laws and regulations: Special laws and regulations control different aspects of tourism
- There is a mixture of tourism stakeholders: Private-sector enterprises, government agencies, non-profit organizations, individuals and other entities have an interest of tourism
Tourism has been shown encouraging the economic growth through investment opportunities such as employment opportunities, economic opportunities and in the end it can increase public welfare. Not only in the form of developments tourism facilities and infrastructure, but also opportunities in a small enterprises and entrepreneurship. The emergence of a new paradigm in the field of tourism, in fact also leads to the environment problem. Tourist activity has played an important role in global economic activity, and tourism industry has been the important industry that many countries make effort to develop. According to the World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), international visits worldwide have risen from 675 million in 2000 to 940 million in 2010, and tourism industry contributes 9% of global gross domestic product (GDP). In Taiwan, domestic travel increases from 79 million in 2000 to 120 million in 2010, and tourism industry contributes 4.7% of GDP. On the contrary, the environment issue of tourism industry has not yet been recognized since it is known as an “industry without chimney”. Most researchers on tourism industry are concerned with the economic growth and they agree that tourism industry is important to local economic development. Moreover, the research of the environmental impact cause of tourism industry is focused on carrying capacity and energy consumption; there are only a few researches discussing the relation between tourism industry and environment (Hsieh, 2013)
Previous research on the SWOT approach was used by (Reihanian, 2012) which explain about the applicability of transforming the current state of tourism in Boujagh National Park (BNP) (a region located in the northern Iran with an area of 3177ha to a sustainable tourism model. To plan and implement this, different management and decision making tools were used including interviews and questionnaire surveys as well as SWOT analysis. A series of interviews was conducted in order to identify actions taken by governmental bodies responsible (e.g., Department of Environment). In addition, the visitors of the park were surveyed to assess the rate of fulfillment of sustainable tourism development in the park. Local residents were also taken into account by using a survey to reveal the problems and attractions of the park. Results showed that the existing tourism activities in the park did not conform to sustainability requirements. Thus, a SWOT analysis was used to identify the required management strategies to improve the tourism in the park. Another SWOT research also used by (Zhang, 2012) to make a comprehensive evaluation and analysis on strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the development of rural tourism in Suzhou. Through the combination of internal resources and external environment, this paper clearly determines the advantages and disadvantages of Suzhou rural resources, comprehends the opportunities and challenges to be faced, and also proposes the corresponding countermeasures. Beside SWOT, another analysis techniques used to identify the required management strategies is Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM) which used by (Ghorbani, 2015) to evaluating the current situation of ecotourism in Kaji Namakzar Wetland (KNW) in South Khorasan Province, Iran, and the results showed that the existing ecotourism activities within the wetland are not in line with the sustainability requirements. Although the result of the present study showed that KNW has an unsustainable situation with regard to its current management strategies, if authorities take its great opportunities and strengths more into consideration, it can have positive effects on developing sustainable strategies to increase ecotourism activities in the region and to reduce the adverse effects on the environment.
In Cianjur, there is a tradition of megalithic sites which is an ancient relic namely Gunung Padang. The site consists of five terrace with 5 stair steps made of stone to go from one to another. Gunung Padang sites is also the largest megalithic sites in South East Asia (Disbudpar Cianjur: 2013). Tourism potential of Gunung Padang that in fact is enormous because this site reveals the ancient Sundanese culture and preserving in the megalithic era. But the potential of the sites apparently hasn’t made the site into a historical tourist attraction widely known and appreciated when compared to the Borobudur and Prambanan Temple. Based on this reality, we would like to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of Gunung Padang site both internally and externally, so we will know what factors need to be improved to make the site known more broadly as the sites that have historical value and worth to visit.
Philip Kotler (2016) explained that SWOT analysis represents the basic analytical framework for strategy research. The SWOT analysis investigates the current situation of an organization at a given time (Seth,2015). SWOT Matrix Analysis can be seen in the following table:
Figure 1. SWOT Analysis Matrix
The variables used in this study is the variable X 1 (external) and X 2 (Internal).
- Internal Factor
Internal factors are factors of tourist attractions which include the strengths and weaknesses in Gunung Padang. Analysis of the internal factors that include strengths and weaknesses was conducted to find out the condition of the area internally.
- External Factors
External factors are factors of tourist attractions which include the opportunities and threats in Gunung Padang especially in external environment.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The population of this research is the Department of Culture and Tourism, Gunung Padang, site manager. and visitors of Gunung Padang. The sample is a part of the population. Samples are part of the number and characteristic owned by the population. Because of the limited time, funds, and energy, so the writers use samples that taken from population. Sampling technique is based on the estimation referring to the unknown existing population; sampling technique is the sample collection. Sampling technique essentially can be categorized into two types namely probability sampling techniques and non-probability sampling (Sugiyono, 2014). The populations of the study are visitors who are going to the tourist attraction of Gunung Padang. The number of respondents is limited to 100 people with details of 97 visitors, plus three key persons, one person of Department of Culture and Tourism, Cianjur and two persons of Gunung Padang employees. The number of respondents who interviewed as many as 100 people with details as follows
Table 1. The Number of Respondents
||Department of Culture and Tourism, Cianjur||1 person|
||The Management||2 persons|
||Gunung Padang Visitors||97 persons|
Results showed that the strategy needed for the development of Gunung Padang in Cianjur of West Java is to turn the strategy around, to face enormous development opportunities, but on the other hand, are facing some constraints or internal error. Focus strategy does minimize internal problems to be able to take advantage of development opportunities. Turn Around strategy matrix can be seen below
|1. Road access repairable by using the raw material developed that they can traverse by all kinds of vehicles
2. The availability of public transportation from the highway to the location of the site
3. Providing safety barrier and road lamps along the way to the site.
4. Government needs to officially declare Gunung Padang site as an National Tourism Site
5. Media of Information have to be installed in the site and the city of Cianjur
6. Tourism amenities have to be provided in the location such as ATM, restaurants, rest area, etc.
7. Can be developed through ceremony or festival (local, national, or international) that could become tourist attraction
Figure 2. SWOT Strategy Matrix
Based on the results of the analysis and discussion, the conclusions as follows:
Gunung Padang is the largest prehistoric relic’s site in Southeast Asia, which is estimated by archaeologists, was built around 2,000 years BC, or 2,400 years before the Kingdom of Kutai first stood in Borneo or roughly 2800 years before the Borobudur temple built. It also raises the question as to whether the people of Nusantara (Archipelago), especially Sundanese people, in particular, is the nation’s oldest people in the world (based on the interview with Department of culture and tourism Cianjur). Located in Karyamukti village, district of Campaka, in Cianjur, a remarkable megalithic site is 1.5-hour drive away or 45 km from the city of Cianjur. The sceneries along the road to the site are still beautiful and natural (it is surrounded by 5 Mountains). There is also an alternative tour around sites which such as Stasiun Lampegan, Curug Cikondang and a Tea Plantation managed by PTPN VIII. Those alternative tour can also be the second strength of this site. In the area around the site, there were several supporting facilities that can ease up the travelers to enjoy the atmosphere of the site, such as the availability of simple lodging facilities for tourists who want to stay in the vicinity of the site (either individual or group govern by local communities), signage, bins, barrier, a tour guide, tickets, seller counter information space as well as the interpreters. The involvement of the local community to participate in maintaining and preserving the site can be seen, such as traditional forums, local forums, etc.
The access to the location is still a factor in the weaknesses of these sites, where it is still difficult to travel by all types of vehicles. The highway in the State has not been paved completely. Condition of the highway towards the site is still narrow and steep and along the sides of the road there is no safety fences and no street lamp which may lead to the occurrence of many accidents. The passage of the site as a tourist attraction is also one of the factors of weaknesses from this site. Yet there is no media information that can support the development of potential tourist location and provide a complete description of the Gunung Padang such as flyers, brochures. There is no availability of public transportation specifically provided by the Cultural and Tourism Office of Cianjur to facilitate the tourists who want to visit the location.
The most important factors that can be turned into opportunities for the development of the tourism potential is to repair access roads along the path leading to the site, so it can be traversed by all kind of vehicles. Also to build security fences or installing adequate lights on the side of the road to add to increase the comfort and safety of visitors who drive to the site. Another factor that could be made as opportunity is the legalization of the site as a cultural heritage, so it can be managed properly. Creating traditional ceremony or festival around the location of the site in national or even international level as tourism attractions. The availability of public transportation specifically for visitors who will visit the location of the site. The provision of complete information about Gunung Padang, and also in area surrounding the city of Cianjur as well as supporting amenities around the location of such ATM, hostelry, restaurants, gift shops, etc. that will facilitate tourists to enjoy their tourism, having more activities and can also elevate the economic level of local residents.
Factors which can be threat to the development of the tourism potential of the ancient sites include the official status confirming to be of cultural heritage. It is feared it will result in increasingly abandoned, damaged and not well-maintained tourism site. There is also possible exploitation of the parties who have specific desires. The occurrence of theft of archaeological objects in the site also became one of the factors in a threat to the development of the tourism potential, plus the growing number of visitors to the site especially on holidays that is not manage well may further damage the site location.
- Short Terms
- Opening of the access to the site using good materials, so it can be traversed by vehicles of all kinds
- By placing a steel safety bar on the side of the road to avoid traffic accidents
- Adding media information on the site by the Department of Culture and Tourism of Cianjur to assist tourists to get all the information on the website of Gunung Padang
- Adding lighting along the road will help travelers to visit to the location of the site in the evening.
- Long Terms
- By adding special vehicles from the city of Cianjur to the Gunung Padang site back and forth for tourists.
- The legalization of the ancient site as one of the National Heritage, so the location of the site will be protected by law and the potential of location as tourist attraction can be optimized.
- Providing amenities (ATMs, lodging, restaurants, etc.) around the site that involves the communities with the supervision of the Manager and the Department of Culture and tourism, will add to the convenience of the tourists
- By arranging festival or event both in national or international scales, can be used to promote the site to the world.
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