How to cite this article:
Zulkarnain, Arif., Wiyana, Tri., & Putranto, Trias Septyoari. (2018). Analysis of Image Attribute and Image Holistic toward Behavioral Intentions. Presented at The 5th International Conference on Management, Hospitality & Tourism and Accounting 2018 (IMHA 2018). 3-4 September 2018. Bina Nusantara University. To be published in Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities (JSSH)- Scopus Indexed
ANALYSIS OF IMAGE ATTRIBUTE AND IMAGE HOLISTIC TOWARD BEHAVIORAL INTENTIONS
Arif Zulkarnain, Tri Wiyana, Trias Septyoari Putranto
Hotel Management Department, Faculty of Economics and Communication
Bina Nusantara University
Jl. KH. Syahdan No.9, Palmerah, Jakarta 11480, Indonesia
Phone number: +62215345830, Fax number: +62215300244
The purpose of this paper to develop and test a conceptual model the relationships among the constructs of Hotel Image, Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions in the hospitality industry. Research discussion are: (1) to analyze the effects of hotel image on customer satisfaction? (2) to analyze the effect of hotel image on behavioral intention? (3) to analyze the effects customer satisfaction on behavioral intention. The design of this research using primary data obtained by distributing questionnaires to 315 respondents eligible stayed at the 4 star Hotel at least 1 time in the last 12 months. Respondents were selected using purposive sampling method and the data were analyzed using LISREL 8.80 to test the concept of models and hypotheses. The results showed that Image Attribute and Image Holistic has a positive influence on the behavioral intentions. This research shows that; Image Attribute has higher score 0,87 than Image Holistic 0,72, have a positive influence on Behavioral Intention and Satisfaction. Future researches are expected to focus on other variables such as trust and commitment. This research provides and understanding relating perception contribute significant value to the Behavioral Intention.
Keywords: Image Attribute, Image Holistic, Behavioral Intentions, Satisfaction, Hotel.
The current trend of hotel industry has a very competitive level of competition and makes the company trying to achieve excellence and to maintain optimal position in the market. Hospitality industry management consider that business can make their benefits by fulfilling clients. The greater part of the experimental proof demonstrated that exclusive consumer loyalty does not promise you that fulfilled client will held with you or will profit your administrations once more. It is just the purchaser faithfulness that is essentially crucial than consumer loyalty for business achievement (Saleem & Raja, 2014).
Based on data from the Center of Statistics (2017) mentions the growth of room supply from period 2014-2016 in Jakarta areas; 3 star hotels increased by 7.031 rooms, 4 star hotels increased by 4,447 rooms and 5 star hotels increased by 1,168 rooms. The number of tourist trips in Indonesia is expected to be 400 million by 2023, according to China & Southeast Asia HVS estimates (2016) and need around 800 new hotels. Image is an essential component of a hotel, a brand goes about as the most compelling component in administrations in light of its regular uniqueness like perishability, connection, substance and heterogeneity. Brand image is an impression of a brand held in buyer memory. Brand image is essentially what comes into the buyers’ mind when a brand is p bound before the client. When the clients evaluate a brand name, they suddenly think about the highlights of a brand. (Lahap, Ramli, Said, Radzi, & Zain, 2016 )
Business traveler explorers see comfort as the second most essential characteristic, however relaxation voyagers see reservation and registration as the second generally critical trait. The hotel visitors who remain just overnight, comfort is the most basic quality. These visitors feel that they can endure most circumstances on the grounds that their stay is short. For those remaining over one-night, unmistakable qualities, for example, visitor room conditions, end up critical. (Yen & Tang, 2019).
Hotel image is believed to play an important role in the customer’s decision to use the hotel. Tourists’ behaviors can contrast in light of their level of inclusion. The choice of a vacationer goal requires a high level of customer association, as it is a mind-boggling venture. The most included people will attempt in basic leadership and elevated amounts of association have been appeared to emphatically influence psychological picture and general image. (Molinillo, Sanchez, Buchalis, & Buhalis, 2018).
Behavioral intentions can be sorted as positive or negative. Great behavioral expectations incorporate positive informal, paying a value premium, going through more cash, and staying faithful. Horrible behavioral goals incorporate leaving the organization, going through less cash, spreading negative verbal, also, making legitimate move. (Ladhari, 2009).
This research will be conducted on customers from 4 star hotel located in Jakarta. This research tries to get a strong explanation of the influence of relationship on hotel image and customer satisfaction toward behavioral intentions.
Customer satisfaction provides an incentive for the customer to establish a strong relationship with the service provider. In view of the linkage of saw quality, consumer loyalty and behavioral expectations, the general motivation behind this investigation is to distinguish the key traits influencing consumer loyalty and behavioral expectations. (Liu & Jang, 2009)
The research problems can be seen from the comparison of occupancy rates between 5 star, 4 star and 3 star hotels in Jakarta during 2014 – 2016 period. In 5 star hotels, the occupancy rate of the room number is: In 3 star hotel, the data room occupancy rate totaled: 2014 total 56.23%, 2015 total 56.11 and 2016 total 53.67. The occupancy rate of 5 star hotel rooms is the lowest compared to 4 star hotels and 3 star hotels. Which variables of hotel image and customer satisfaction are most influential in creating the behavioral intentions of hotel customers. The purpose of this research are: (1) To analyze the effects of hotel image on customer satisfaction? (2) to analyze the effect of hotel image on behavioral intention? (3) to analyze the effects customer satisfaction on behavioral intention?
Hotel Image stated from (Milfelner & Korda, 2011) can be found in writing and up and coming. Hypothesis behind corporate image as a rule depicts it as the general impression made on the brains of people in general about a firm. Corporate picture is considered as a standout amongst the most critical immaterial resources of the firm. Exact research demonstrates that relationship.
The overall impression made on the minds of the public about a hotel can be considered a hotel image. Image can likewise be depicted as convictions, behaviors or impressions of an individual or a gathering with respect to a subject. This subject can be a firm, product, brand, goal or individual. What is critical is that picture shape practices and lead clients to settle on choices in view of them. (Durna & Dedeoglu, 2015). The dimensions used in this study adapted the behavioral intention dimension of (Kandampully & Suhartanto, 2000), adjusted to analytical units as follows:
- A. Image Attributes: Hotel strategic location, complete hotel facilities, attractive overall Interior, Competitive hotel room rate, Good and quality hotel service and hotel employees are friendly and deft.
- Image Holistic: A sense of security and comfort when entering and being in a hotel, good hotel reputation, Physical shape and hotel building with high taste and attractive and good room layout (lobby, reception, restroom)
Customer Satisfaction stated from (Liang, Choi, & Joppe, 2018) referring to it as the assessment consequence of past related encounters and trades. fulfillment is seen as a disposition that outcomes from a psychological examination of the administration and quality that a client hopes to get from an exchange after purchase. Based as a matter of fact-based fulfillment, despite the fact that it is perceived that shoppers may utilize diﬀerent evaluative criteria in diﬀerent processes.
There are two levels of a company that can be measured: the desired service / what the customer wants that service should be, and the minimum service that the customer must accept, so that acceptable services are located between the desired service and the adequate service.
(Raza, Siddiquei, Awan, & Bukhari, 2012) stated customer satisfaction as a passionate reaction to the utilization of an item or administration. Satisfaction is the best characterized as “an assessment between what was gotten and what was normal”. That fulfillment is something related with post buy assessment. Post-buy goal implies that buyer will buy your administration again There is another measurement of post buy conduct which is informal given.
Consumer satisfaction is viewed as a standout amongst the most critical results of all advertising exercises in a market-situated firm. The undeniable goal of fulfilling a client is to extend a business, to increase higher piece of the pie, and to get rehash and referral business. (Abu Khalifeh & Mat Som, 2012). Customer satisfaction is the internal feeling of each individual who may feel satisfied or feel unsatisfied resulting from the assessment of the services provided to the individual in the context of anticipating customers with the organization.
The dimensions used in this study adapted the behavioral dimension of intention (Kandampully & Suhartanto, 2000) which is adjusted as follows:
A.Satisfaction with Receptionist: I am satisfied with my decision to stay at this hotel, My choice to stay at this hotel is a wise decision, I am thinking of doing the right thing when I choose to stay in this hotel, I feel that having a pleasant experience with this hotel.
B.Satisfaction with Food and Beverage: Friendly restaurant staff, fast food restaurant staff, fast restaurant staff in managing food and beverages, Timeliness of restaurant opening, Comfortable atmosphere when dining on food and beverages at restaurants, Food and beverages guaranteed quality.
C.Satisfaction with Housekeeping: Friendly housekeeping staff, responsive housekeeping staff, complete in-room facilities and comfortable and clean room atmosphere.
D.Satisfaction with Price: You are satisfied with the price paid for the room received, you are satisfied with the price paid for the food and beverage received and you are satisfied with the price paid for other services received.
Behavioral Intentions is a multidimensional framework consisting of: loyalty, recommendation, and paying a premium price stated by (Ladhari, 2009). The connection amongst fulfillment and behavioral expectations is all around archived in both the tourism and showcasing written works. Return to and proposal aims are pointers of positive behavioral result from a palatable vacationer encounter (Prayag, Hosany, & Odeh, 2013).
Behavioral intentions linked with customer retention and customer loyalty suggest that behavioral intentions are a verbal indication based on the goals of each person. recommended two well-known pointers: the expectation to repurchase and the aim to give positive proposals in estimating the future conduct goal develop. The dimensions used in this study adapted the behavioral intention dimension of Ladhari (2009), which was adjusted to the analytical as follows:
A.Recommendation: I would definitely recommend this hotel to colleagues / relatives.
B.Loyalty: This hotel is my first choice to stay overnight
C.Paying premium price: I would like to pay more to get this hotel service.
H1: Hotel Image has a positive influence on Customer Satisfaction.
H2: Hotel Image has a positive influence on Behavioral Intentions.
H3: Customer Satisfaction has a positive influence on Behavioral Intentions
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study aims to analyze the influence of hotel image and customer satisfaction towards behavioral intentions. The research design used is Hypothesis Testing which aims to test the hypothesis. The unit of analysis to be used is the individual who stay in the 4 star hotel in Jakarta. All statements used to measure the variables in this study were measured using a 5 point Likert Scale from 1 to 5; where 1 = Strongly Disagree to 5 = Strongly Agree.
The population are hotel customers who use hotel facilities repeatedly in a certain period. Purposive sampling, with criteria of hotel guests who have become hotel customers and have felt the facilities at 4 star located in Jakarta. Data collection techniques in this study were conducted through the distribution of questionnaires submitted to Front Office Manager at the hotel under study. Obtained 24 hotels as a unit of research. Of the total questionnaires distributed as many as 340 questionnaires, only 315 are returned and can be processed, It is able to meet the minimum requirements of survey research that is 100-200 respondents (Sugiyono, 2014). Subjects in the research is an individual with demographic criteria: gender, age, education level, occupation, how long to be hotel customers and hotel names that have been used. Primary data is taken from the number of samples that will answer the given questionnaire and the secondary data is taken from the publication data of the tourism department, the statistic center bureau, and other publications.
Test Instruments, The validity of a research result is determined by the measuring instrument used. To overcome this required two kinds of testing that is the test of validity and test of reliability.
Validity test, to be able to analyze model with SEM, indicator of each construct must have significant loading factor to construct that measured hence in this research validity test instrument used is Confirmatory Factor Analisys with help of LISREL 8,80 where every item statement should have a loading factor greater than 0.40 (Sugiyono, 2014). Test Reliability is the degree of measurement if done repeatedly or measurements taken under the same conditions will give the same result, related to the consistency, accuracy, and predictability of a measuring instrument. A questionnaire can be said to be reliable or reliable if one’s response to a statement is consistent over time. According to (Sugiyono, 2014) the value of Cronbach Coefficient is sufficient and acceptable is worth 0.60 or more. To know the value of Construct Reliability in SEM then required calculation manually with the following formula:
Construct Reliability = (Σstd.loading)2
(Σstd.loading)2 + Σɛj
Data analysis method, the overall fit models should be tested in advance to ensure that the fit model can illustrate all causal effects. Fitness model test of goodnes of fit model is done by looking at some measurement criteria, namely:
Absolut Fit Measures, which measures the overall fit model (both structural models and simultaneous measurement models). Criteria by looking at the value:
The Likehood-Ratio Chi Square Statistic, the minimum acceptable level of significance was 0.05 and 0.01 at the level of chi-square measurement, the researchers looked for a non-significant difference due to this test between the actual and predicted matrices. Chi-square measurements depend heavily on the number of samples, so some researchers recommend combining these measurements with other measures (Sugiyono, 2014)
Parsimonious Fit Measures, which is adjusment to fit measurement to be compared between models with the number of recommended coefficients is lower limit 1 or upper limit 5. To analyze the data, the method used in this study to test the hypothesis with different levels. Criteria by looking at the value of Normed Chi-Square (CMIN / DF). A confidence score of 95% (α = 0.05).
Hypothesis testing in this study was conducted by using SEM method with the help of LISREL 8.80 program. This hypothesis was tested at a significance level of 0.05 and a 95% confidence level. Hypothesis test is done by comparing p – value with α level of 0.05 with the following conditions:
If Ttest> 1.96à Ho is rejected
If Ttest≤ 1.96àHo failed to be rejected
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Description of Research Objects
From the profile of respondents by gender, the majority were 211 male or 67% and 104 female or 33%. From age-based profiles, the majority of aged between 36-45 years consisting of 132 or 41.9%. From the profile based on the last level of undergraduate education consisting of 192 persons or 61%. Based on the length of hotel subscription, the majority of more than 6 months as many as 231 respondents or 73.3%, while the lowest for 1 month and between 1-3 months as many as 18 or 5.7%. Based on the activity in the hotel, to do hotel stay activities conducted by 227 people or 72.1%. There are two groups of hotels being sampled, of which 182 respondents stay at the International hotel chain and there are 133 National.
Test Instruments, testing of research instrument consist of test of validity and reliability test. In this research, reliability testing method using Cronbach’s Alpha (CA) is processed with SPSS version 20.0 software. Cronbach’s Alpha that is acceptable is worth 0.70 or more. Thus, if CA is greater than 0.70 then construct is considered reliable.
Test Results Validity and Reliability Hotel Image
|Indicators||Standardized Factor Loading||Cronbach Alpha||Result|
Source: Data Processed Appendix
Based on the above table, it is known that all the indicators on the Hotel Image construct are valid because it has a loading value greater than 0.35 The reliability test results are known to be Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient greater than 0.60. Then Cronbach’s Alpha is acceptable and the constructs can be reliable.
Test Result Validity and ReliabilityVariable Satisfaction
|Indicators||Standardized Factor Loading||Cronbach Alpha||Result|
Source: Data Processed Appendix
Based on the above table, it is known that all indicators on the satisfaction construct are valid because it has a loading value greater than 0.35 The reliability test results are known to be Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient greater than 0.60. Then Cronbach’s Alpha is acceptable and the constructs can be reliable.
Test Results Validity and Reliability Behavioral Intention Variable
|Indicators||Standardized Factor Loading||Cronbach Alpha||Result|
Source: Data Processed Appendix
Based on the above table, note that all indicators on the Behavioral Intention construct declared valid because it has a loading value greater than 0.35 Reliability testing results known Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient greater than 0.60. Then Cronbach’s Alpha is acceptable and reliable construct.
Structural Model Testing
The hypothesized relationship of the research constructs to the proposed model is indicated by the causal relationship between the constructs. After testing the measurement model, the next step is to test the Structural Model.
Evaluation of the goodness of fit value of the structural model that has been done as in the picture above, is presented summarized in the following table:
Table 4 Goodness of fit Index Full Model
|GoFI Statistics||Result Model||Criteria|
|c2/df (P)||293.14/89 (0.000)||bad fit.|
|GFI ; AGFI||0.91 ; 0.86||good fit.|
|CFI; IFI||0.98; 0.98||good fit.|
|NFI; RFI||0.97; 0.96||good fit.|
Source: Data Processed Appendix
Table 4 shows an objective estimate showing that all model match parameters qualify for goodness of fit except Chi-square in bad fit.
The magnitude of the path coefficient between exogenous and endogenous variables, and shows the significance of t-value. The exogenous, endogenous, and variable-variable path equations are presented in the Measurement Equations equation with path coefficients in Standardized Solutions with standard error estimation and t-value, can be explained as follows:
1). Variable Hotel Image
IAT. = 0.87*H_Image, Errorvar.= 0.31 , R² = 0.69.
IHO. = 0.72*H_Image, Errorvar.= 0.43 , R² = 0.57.
Hotel Image variables are formed by two dimensions: Image Attributes (IAT), and Image Holistic (IHO). The image attribute coefficient (IAT) shows the effect on Hotel Image of 0.87 and Image Holistic (IHO) of 0.72. This means that in the full model structure, the most dominant Image Attributes dimension affects the Image Hotel’s variables.
2). Variable Customer Satisfaction
SRE. = 0.84*C_Satisf, Errorvar.= 0.41 , R² = 0.59.
SFB. = 0.88*C_Satisf, Errorvar.= 0.23 , R² = 0.77.
SHK. = 0.27*C_Satisf, Errorvar.= 0.34 , R² = 0.66.
SPC. = 0.40*C_Satisf, Errorvar.= 0.50 , R² = 0.50.
Customer Satisfaction Variables are formed by four dimensions: Satisfaction with Receptions (SRE), Satisfaction with Food and Beverage (SFB), Satisfaction with Housekeeping (SHK), and Satisfaction with Price (SPC). The coefficient of Satisfaction with Receptions (SRE) indicates the effect on Customer Satisfaction of 0.84; Satisfaction with Food and Beverage (SFB) of 0.88; Satisfaction with Housekeeping (SHK) of 0.27 and Satisfaction with Price (SPC) of 0.40. This means that in the full model structure, the most dominant dimension of Satisfaction with Food and Beverage affects Customer Satisfaction.
3). Variable Behavioural Intention
REC. = 0.91*B_Intent, Errorvar.= 0.45 , R² = 0.55.
LOY. = 0.88*B_Intent, Errorvar.= 0.46 , R² = 0.54.
PAY. = 0.85*B_Intent, Errorvar.= 0.42 , R² = 0.58.
Behavioral Intention variables are formed by three dimensions: Recommendation (REC), Loyality (LOY) and Paying a premium price (PAY). The recommendation path coefficient shows the effect on Behavioral Intention of 0.91; Loyality of 0.88 and Paying a premium price of 0.85. This means that in the full-model structure, the most dominant dimension of Recommendation affects the Behavioral Intention.
Partial Significance Test (t-Statistics Test)
A positive value indicates that the higher the value of the independent variable will result in the higher the value of the dependent variable. Hypothesis testing is done by significance test of path coefficient with T test at alpha level a = 5%.
Table : 5. Results of Partial Hypothesis Testing (Test-t)
|H1: HI → CS.||0.43||1,97||8.90||t-test> t-table ; H1 accepted.|
|H2: HI → BI.||0.20||1,97||2.04||t-test> t-table ; H2 accepted.|
|H3: CS → BI.||0.26||1,97||4.63||t-test> t-table ; H3 accepted.|
Source: Out put LISREL Data Processed
If the statistical value | t | > t-table indicates a significant influence, while the statistical value t <t-table shows an insignificant influence.
Hypothesis testing that reflects the causality relationship in SEM model is basically test the significance of path coefficient or Beta coefficient, so it is decided Ho is rejected if obtained t_value> t-table = 1.97 at a = 5% and df: nk-1 = 315-1-1 = 313 or t_value> t-table = 1.97 at a = 5% and df: nk-1 = 315-3-1 = 311 means significant influence and the research hypothesis (alternative hypothesis) is proved.
Based on the research results can be concluded;
- The fourth hypothesis test results show that hotel image customer satisfaction have a positive effect on customer satisfaction. In the dimension of the hotel image, the highest dimension is the image atrribute with a value of 0.87 and the lowest value of holistic image with a value of 0.72. Dimension of customer satisfaction the highest dimension is satisfaction with food and beverage with value 0,88 and lowest value satisfaction with housekeeping with value 0,27. These results support and in accordance with research of (Choe & Kim, 2018), where the hotel image affects customer satisfaction and will increase customer loyalty.
- The results of testing the seventh hypothesis shows the results of customer satisfaction have a positive effect on behavioral intention. Where dimension of customer satisfaction the highest dimension is satisfaction with food and beverage with value 0,88 and lowest value satisfaction with housekeeping with value 0,27. Dimensional behavioral intention with highest recommendation value 0.91 and lowest paying premium price 0.88. The results show support and stated customer satisfaction gives a strong influence on behavioral profitable intentions. (Casidy, Wymer, & O’Cass, 2018)
- The results of testing the eighth hypothesis show the result that the hotel has a positive influence on behavioral intention. Where the dimension of the hotel image dimension is the highest image atrribute with a value of 0.87 and the lowest value holistic image with a value of 0.72. Dimensional behavioral intention with highest recommendation value 0.91 and lowest paying premium price 0.85. These results support many studies that show that hotel image provides a strong influence on behavioral advantages that are advantageous to hotel stays rather than quality of service (Ladhari, 2009).
Customer satisfaction is still showing the dimensions of satisfaction with food and beverage is the highest value where the value contained is the friendliness of restaurant staff, quick responsiveness, the operational accuracy of the restaurant, the comfort of the atmosphere and the quality of f&b are guaranteed. But other things to consider is satisfaction with housekeeping is still a sensitive matter which must pay attention to the satisfaction with should be improved housekeeping staff friendliness, the speed of service for example special requests such as room cleaning service or long requests realized, completeness of facilities to be focus on and level of cleanliness and comfort of the room conditions for the guests.
Customer satisfaction affects the hotel image where the image attribute will make the hotel’s image rise for the customer. Strategic location, complete facilities, attractive interiors, service and friendly and deft. But with the low value of holistic image where the values of sense of security, hotel reputation, the physical form of the building and the arrangement of the lobby should still be a concern for the Hotel Manager.
Behavioral intention is very crucial for the creation of recommendation, loyalty and paying a premium price. Recommendation is the highest value of the research that has been done, it means that the Hotel has done things in accordance with the expectations of guests and the dimensions of loyalty should still be considered where the number of competitors and is expected to maintain the loyalty of guests is a factor that must be considered and must have a special value for guests remain loyal.
Limitations Research; samples are obtained from customers at 4 star hotels located in the Special Capital Region of Jakarta. In this study the variables studied only on customer satisfaction, hotel image, and behavioural intentions, Sampling period was implemented from April 2017 until September 2017.
Recommendations for further research to consider not only do research on 4 star hotels but can be done on luxury and budget hotel and Apartment also can do research in other big city. Can also develop a variable consisting of the dimension of trust and commitment, to perform testing of the dimension of relationship quality to other variables.
Thank you for Prof. Bahtiar Saleh Abbas as Vice Rector V (Research) and to Mr. Dezie Leonarda Warganegara, Ph.D. as the Dean of the Faculty of Economics and Communication, as well as the Hotel Management Lecturers who fully support for the finalisasion of this paper.
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