How to cite this article:
Wiastuti, Rachel Dyah., Lestari, Nurul Sukma., & Mulyaningrum, Novita Indah. (2018). The Coffee Shop Experience for All. Presented at The 5th International Conference on Management, Hospitality & Tourism and Accounting 2018 (IMHA 2018). 3-4 September 2018. Bina Nusantara University. To be published in Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities (JSSH)- Scopus Indexed
THE COFFEE SHOP EXPERIENCE FOR ALL
Rachel Dyah Wiastuti*, Nurul Sukma Lestari, Novita Indah Mulyaningrum
Hotel Management Department
Faculty of Economic and Communication. Bina Nusantara University
Jl K H Syahdan No 9, Palmerah, Jakarta 11480, Indonesia.
Phone. +62 21 5345830 ext. 2347. Fax. +62 21 5300244.
Mobile. +62 877 85686317*
Coffee is an integral and pervasive aspect of hospitality and is part of many, if not most, travel and tourism experiences. Coffee consuming, exhibited through cafés or coffee shops, is a resource for the development of coffee-related tourism. In regards to attracting more customers and to offer a strong value proposition, coffee shops must be accessible for all, barrier- free and implement the concept of accessible tourism. This study aims to examine the compliance of the coffee shops in Jakarta’s shopping malls towards the accessible tourism standard from UNWTO. This paper uses the qualitative method with descriptive approach and domain analysis. There were 14 coffee shops as research objects consisting of seven different brands. Primary data was collected from direct field observation and interviews. Observation checklists and interview guidelines were used during the field data collection. The results show that coffee shop accessibility consists of five dimensions: information, transportation, common requirements, universal design and accessibility. The results also identify how each dimension of accessible tourism was implemented by each coffee shop. Therefore, this study can contribute to the quality improvement of the industry to assure that coffee shops can be accessed by everyone.
Keywords: accessibility, accessible tourism, coffee shop, culinary tourism
Coffee has become the most consumed beverage around the world (Weinberg & Bealer, 2001). There is a vast increase of coffee consumption in the lifestyle of the urban population (Kasnaeny, Sudiro, Hadiwidjojo, & Rohman, 2013). Surprisingly, food and beverages rank number one on tourist spending while they travel (Shenoy, 2005). In fact, most tourists will dine out when they travel (Wolf, 2006). This phenomenon leads to the potential of coffee shops in leisure destinations (Shenoy, 2005); including Jakarta that is experiencing a new wave of coffee shops (Karina, 2016). The coffee shop complies not only as a place to drink coffee, but also serves as a social place (Hung, 2012) as well as a working space (O’Connor, 2018).
The development of coffee shop chains has brought new competition to the food and beverage industry (Hung, 2012). The coffee industry should consider the experience aside from the beverage itself (Tumanan & Lansangan, 2012). Two out of three customers consider a comfortable environment as a crucial factor (Seymour, 2016). Research also shows that 53% customer attachment with the coffee shop correlates with the design, while 48% correlate with the product (Tumanan & Lansangan, 2012). This shows that the product is not the only crucial element of the coffee shop. Thus the coffee shop requires creating value for the customer that eventually will increase the customer experience (Kim & Lee, 2016). Though visiting coffee shops might only be on an occasionally basis, it has become a part of people’s lives nowadays (Kim & Lee, 2016). A great coffee shop combines a product, design and experience (Hou, 2013) that can be perceived by everyone.
However, the coffee shop boom must go hand in hand with its ease of accessibility. This includes accessibility in obtaining information, transportation to reach the location, online and website accessibility and the coffee shop design (Wiastuti, Adiati, & Lestari, 2018). People might encounter unpleasant experiences during their visit to restaurants including coffee shops. Thus, coffee shops should extensively design or renovate or be built to be accessible for everyone. In regards to attracting more customers and offer a strong value proposition, coffee shops must be accessible for all, barrier- free and implement the concept of accessible tourism, so that the coffee shop experience can be felt by everyone.
The scope of this study covers the accessible tourism concept from the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) that supports tourism sustainability. The objective of this study is to examine the compliance of the coffee shops in Jakarta’s shopping malls towards the accessible tourism standard from UNWTO.
The Tourism for All Concept
Tourism for All requires the accessibility, sustainability and equitable participation by all (UNWTO, 2016). Tourism for All is essential in ensuring that everyone has access and is on an equal basis with others to the physical environment, transportation, information, communications and public facilities (UNWTO, 2016).
Hospitality Tourism and Coffee Shops
Restaurants and food service, including coffee shops, are categorized as the supplier sector in the hospitality and tourism industry (Morrison, 2010). Coffee shops located in urban cities have become a destination point for many people although it was not developed specifically for tourists (Kleidas & Jolliffe, 2010). Having a cup of coffee itself also becomes an experience while having it in a coffee shop (Karlsson & Karlsson, 2009).
Accessible Tourism Concepts
The concept of Accessible Tourism refers to the adaptation of environments and tourism products and services to enable access, use and enjoyment by all users, under the principles of Universal Design (UNWTO, 2016). All people demand accessibility, for example, people with disabilities, illness, accident victims, pregnant women, people of advanced age and those who are carrying big sized luggage (UNWTO, 2016). The accessible tourism concept enables all people to function independently and with equity and dignity through the delivery of universally designed products, services, and environments (Darcy & Dickson, 2009). Accessibility provides benefits for business and destinations in economic-social- environment sustainability (Ambrose, 2016). Accessible tourism consists of five dimensions that are further described below:
Information features and its content needs to be accessible to all customers (UNWTO, 2016). There are four key elements in providing accessible information (UNWTO, 2016): (1) Provide information regarding accessibility of the infrastructures and services, (2) Assure to provide a point of contact in order to enable the reader to obtain more information, (3) Assure the information is consistent across all media and channels of communication, (4) Assure all information content provided are up-to-date.
Accessibility is one of the key aspects of current transport planning, especially in reliance to public transport and pedestrian traffic facilities (Rebstock, 2017). Accessibility is considered as a transport concern only for individuals with particular mobility difficulties (ITF, 2017). Transportation options consist of private transport, public transport and walking access.
Common requirements in tourism facilities and sites should comply with seven components (UNWTO, 2013); (1) Parking area: there should be special parking spaces with proper identification for vehicles of persons with reduced mobility, as near as possible to the entry and exit points. (2) Communication: The use of sign language and braille, means and modes of communication and all others should be accepted and facilitated. Telephones and other public communication systems shall be designed and made available for public use so that they can be used by everyone regardless of their height, mobility or sensory problems. (3) Signage: The information and order counters should be marked and have an accessible area reserved for use by persons with reduced mobility located as close as possible to the entrance. Announcements should be both visual and audible. Fire alarms should emit both visual and acoustic signals. The marking of emergency exits must be clear and well lit. Facilities must have maps that show meeting points and evacuation procedures (UNWTO, 2013).
(4) Horizontal movement: Effective measures should be taken to ensure that people with disabilities can move around the venue with the greatest possible independence. Corridors and passageways should be free of physical and visual barriers and have a width to permit the passage of two wheelchairs side-by-side and does not block the circulation, or otherwise provide passing points. (5) Vertical movement: consisting of stairs, elevators, and ramps. Multi- story structures should have an adequate number of elevators wide enough for a person using a wheelchair to enter and move. They should be specially designed and equipped for easy use by all including for blind people. They should be equipped with emergency systems accessible to the hearing impaired. (6) Public hygiene facilities: accessible toilet stalls and washbasins should also be installed at the same place with the toilets. (7) Prices: additional costs required to provide accessible services and facilities shall not entail an increase in rates for customers with disabilities (UNWTO, 2013).
Universal design means the design of products, environments, programs, and services that are usable by all people to the greatest extent possible without the need for adaptation or specialized design, that consist of seven principles (NC State University, 1997): (1) Equitable use where the design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities, (2) Flexibility in use where the design accommodates the range of individual preferences and abilities, (3) Simple and intuitive use where use of the design is easy to understand, regardless of the user’s experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level, (4) Perceptible Information where the design communicates necessary information effectively to the user, (5) Tolerance for error where the design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions, (6) Low physical effort where the design is efficient and comfortable to use with a minimum of fatigue, (7) Size and space where appropriate for approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless of user’s body size, posture, or mobility (NC State University, 1997).
Accessibility includes access control that contains posters with opening and closing times, the estimated time needed to cover all areas and recommendations for appropriate behavior at the location (UNWTO, 2013). A map must be provided that gives detailed location of each object or collection and form of transport with stops close to the entrance, accessible sanitary facilities, and a parking area for people with reduced mobility as well as eating areas (UNWTO, 2013).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This research is qualitative descriptive research. Qualitative research aims to gain a general understanding of social reality and is expected to produce in- depth description of something observed (Soewadji, 2012), where the result data is information that is generally classified (Sugiarto, 2015). Descriptive research defines a phenomenon without relating it to other phenomena (Suliyanto, 2014) explaining the “what” and “how” of a concept (Soewadji, 2012), and describes the reality that occurs without explaining the relationship between variables (Kriyantono, 2012). This research defines how the accessible tourism concept is implemented by the object without examining the relationship with other variables.
|Table 1. Research Objects|
|1||Starbucks||Plaza Senayan Mall||SB1||South Jakarta|
|2||Starbucks||Plaza Indonesia Mall||SB2||Central Jakarta|
|3||Excelso||Senayan City Mall||EX1||South Jakarta|
|4||Excelso||Sarinah Plaza||EX2||Central Jakarta|
|5||Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf||Grand Indonesia Mall||CB1||Central Jakarta|
|6||Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf||Central Park Mall||CB2||West Jakarta|
|7||Bengawan Solo||Ciputra Mall||BS1||West Jakarta|
|8||Bengawan Solo||Pacific Place Mall||BS2||South Jakarta|
|9||Djournal||Grand Indonesia Mall||DJ1||Central Jakarta|
|10||Djournal||Puri Indah Mall||DJ2||West Jakarta|
|11||Kopi Luwak||Pacific Place Mall||KL1||South Jakarta|
|12||Kopi Luwak||Blok M Plaza||KL2||South Jakarta|
|13||Liberica||Pacific Place Mall||LB1||South Jakarta|
|14||Liberica||Gandaria City Mall||LB2||South Jakarta|
Source: Zomato, 2018
Table 1 shows 14 coffee shops from seven different brands that were chosen as research objects. The research objects were coffee shops in Jakarta’s shopping malls and were chosen based on two criteria. First, the coffee shop must be located in a shopping mall in Jakarta, prioritizing shopping malls that were officially listed on the Jakarta Tourism Board website. Second, the coffee shop must have a minimum of five branches throughout Indonesia. The coffee shop database was obtained and filtered from the Zomato platform on January 2018. The Zomato platform has been used by many people to decide where to eat across a thousand cities in more than 20 countries in the world, including Indonesia and Jakarta (Zomato, 2018).
Primary data was collected from direct field observation and interviewing relevant individuals. Field observation was conducted by all researchers and took place during two months on January to February 2018 using the observation check list as guidance. Observing each object required up to four hours. The observation checklist consists of six parts: general information, checklist for information dimension, checklist for transportation dimension, checklist for common requirement dimension, checklist for universal design dimension, checklist for accessibility dimension. Interviews were conducted with coffee shop employees and information staff in each of the malls where the coffee shop was located, using the semi- structured interview method with a combination of open and close- ended questions. All interview results were written in the interview notes. Meanwhile, secondary data was collected from documentation and literature study. Data was analyzed with domain analysis. Data findings are summarized into three categories: poor, good and excellent. Poor indicated less than 60% of the indicator compliances, good indicated 60% to 80% of the indicator compliances, while excellent indicated more than 80% of the indicator compliances.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Results are elaborated in five subsections referring to accessible tourism dimensions. Furthermore, discussion is defined after the findings. Each coffee shop name is abbreviated according to Table 1.
In term of information, it can be divided into online information and offline or in-store information where both must be consistent in all communication channels. The summary of the information dimension can be seen on Table 2. All coffee shops show consistent information results, especially regarding promotion related information. Customers can find it on online channels and can find out about the same promotion once they visit the outlet; it can be listed on the menu board or on the menu flyer.
|Table 2. Information Dimension|
|1||Provide information regarding accessibility of the infrastructures and services||×||×||×||×||×||×||×|
|2||Provide a point of contact in order to enable the reader to obtain more information||√||√||√||√||√||√||√|
|3||All information is consistent across all media and channels of communication||√||√||√||√||√||√||√|
|4||All information content provided are up-to-date||√||√||√||√||√||√||√|
Source: Authors, 2018
Due to offline or in- store information, there is no information about accessibility infrastructure and services in all of the coffee shops. But details about the point of contact can be found easily at the cashier or ordering area and entertainment area. This type of information is also provided in the form of a business card, displayed in the coffee shop dining area or cashier area that are free to be taken by everyone. All information content, especially the menu, are up- to date. Most are updated on a regular basis when there is menu engineering.
Due to online information, all of the coffee shops have official websites and social media as shown on Table 3. Though the social media channels differ to one another, Facebook is surprisingly available for all of the coffee shops. Unfortunately, the website is in English with no option for other languages such as Bahasa Indonesia. This is good for those who know English, as well as foreign tourists, but will be difficult for local customers who are not familiar with the language. Other than official websites and social media accounts, all of the coffee shops can be found online through search engines such as Google and food and beverage platforms such as Zomato and Qraved. All websites comply with the “contact us” menu so that the viewers are able to reach the company for further inquiry. However, there is no detailed information about accessibility at all.
|Table 3. Online Information|
|No||Coffee Shop||Website||Language||Social media|
|3||Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf||http://coffeebean.co.id/sites/||English||Facebook
Source: Authors, 2018
In terms of public transportation, all of the coffee shops were located in shopping malls. Thus, transportation access is reviewed of the shopping mall itself. Since all are located in Jakarta, public transportation is the most developed. Many options are available from city buses, commuter trains, TransJakarta buses, taxis, and online transport platforms. All locations can be accessed with any means of transportation. Though the facilities are not adequate but it is still acceptable. Much of the pedestrian facilities were upgraded to more accessible pedestrian paths that are equipped with tactile paving for those with visual impairment.
In terms of parking space, since the coffee shops are located in shopping malls, all parking facilities are embedded in the establishment. The parking spaces are decent with the option for regular parking, ladies parking, and valet parking service. Only Grand Indonesia Mall, where CB1 and DJ1 are located, is equipped with an online parking reservation system called Smak Parking. All parking spaces are monitored by mall staff and it is very easy to locate special parking space for people with disabilities near the entrance. It also has proper identification in writing and pictograms. Most of the special parking space is not located in the main lobby because it is prohibited to park vehicles in the lobby due to security reasons. Ladies parking is also available at no additional cost and does not require reservations at a first come first serve basis. The price for parking is almost the same for all shopping malls in Jakarta at an average at 4,000 to 5,000 IDR per hour.
In terms of communication, Braile and sign language cannot be found anywhere. Although SB is known for its social responsibility such as hiring deaf employees and providing sign language training, this has not been implemented in SB1 and SB2. In term of signage, all coffee shops were equipped with brand signage and was displayed in a location that can be seen by everyone and written in proper size. Information signage, such as “order here”, “pick up”, “pay here” were all well provided. Direction signage such as “in”, “out”, and “toilet” and safety emergency signage such as “exit” were also provided. All signage were mostly written in English. Good signage must comply with pictograms and written language (ADA, 2017). Signage deserves a lot of attention in terms of accessible design and the guidelines detail requirements for raised characters, Braille, installation height and location, visual characters, pictograms, and symbols of accessibility (Fowler, 2017).
In terms of horizontal movement, the main concern was the different floor surfaces between the inside and outside dining areas. Most outside space are for the smoking areas. Six out of the 14 coffee shops have outdoor areas (SB1, EX1, CB2, BS1, DJ1, and DJ2). All the outdoor areas are located on the same floor and are adjoined with the indoor area, separated with one or two doors for in and out access. Indeed, different floor surfaces exist, but the discrepancy is insignificant. People have no difficulty to move from the indoor area to the outdoor and vice versa. In terms of vertical movement, only LB1 and EX2 come with a two story structure. Stairs are provided, but it is only adequate for one person going up or going down, and not for two persons going to different directions. The other coffee shops are of one story structure, thus have no problem with vertical movement. All of the shopping malls where the coffee shops are located are equipped with elevators and escalators.
In terms of public hygiene facilities, since the coffee shops are located in shopping malls, all public hygiene facilities were embedded in the establishments. SB1 was equipped with one toilet that was for both men and women, which was provided with a toilet, washbasin, toilet paper, dryer, and hand soap. Meanwhile, the remaining coffee shops provided no toilets or hand washing stations but customers are able to use the shopping mall public hygiene facilities at no charge. The coffee shop employees will give the information of the location of the facilities to ensure customers can easily find it. Additionally, the shopping malls are equipped with baby change rooms and disabled toilets.
In terms of prices, none of the coffee shops allocated additional prices for people with special requirements. There is no entrance fee to enter the coffee shop, a customer can simply buy the product and everyone can enter the coffee shop. The average price range is from 35,000 to 50,000 IDR for one beverage. All of the coffee shops provide various modes of payment: cash, e-money, debit card, credit card from various bank providers. Cash payments must be in IDR currency, other currencies are not accepted, as well as traveler checks. The summary of the common requirement dimension can be seen on Table 4.
|Table 4. Common Requirements Dimension|
|6||Public hygiene facilities||√||×||×||×||×||×||×|
Source: Authors, 2018
In terms of equitable use and flexibility in use, the design is appealing and useful to all users but does not cover people with diverse abilities. Children’s seats are provided but the adjoining design for the chairs and tables is not suitable. The design is not complex and easy to understand regardless of the customer’s experience. The potential of hazards are minimized, such as the use of power sockets, surface materials and furniture equipment design.
In terms of physical effort, the designs are not fully ergonomic. The design of EX is different to the other coffee shops because it serves full course meals, thus the table designs were adjusted to dining requirements. The dining space is adequate and there is ample room for people to move around the entire coffee shop without disturbing other people. BS has quite small space due to its design. The summary of the universal design dimension can be seen on Table 5.
|Table 5. Universal Design Dimension|
|2||Flexibility in use||×||×||×||×||×||×||×|
|3||Simple and intuitive use||√||√||√||√||√||√||√|
|5||Tolerance for error||√||×||√||√||√||√||√|
|6||Low physical effort||√||√||√||√||√||√||√|
|7||Appropriate size and space||√||√||√||×||√||√||√|
Source: Authors, 2018
|Table 6. Accessibility Dimension|
Source: Authors, 2018
In terms of operational hours, this information can be easily found on every coffee shop entrance, mostly on a sticker that is embedded on the door and/or placed near the entrance door. This information can also be found near the cashier area and listed on the business card. Behavior recommendations are shown on signs that are stuck on the wall or on the small board announcement that suggest customers to not bring food and drink from outside. This is available in written English and Indonesian and pictograms. Other recommendations are smoking and non- smoking in particular areas. There are no maps of the indoor or outdoor dining areas and the emergency maps are also not placed in locations that are easily read by customers. The summary of the information dimension can be found on Table 6.
From the above findings, discussion will be elaborated and displayed on Table 7. Poor indicates less than 60% of indicator compliances, good indicates 60% to 80% of indicator compliances, while Excellent indicates more than 80% of indicator compliances.
|Table 7. Research Results|
|No||Name||Abb||Information||Transportation||Common requirements||Universal design||Accessibility|
|3||Coffee Bean & Tea Leaf||CB||Good||Exec||Good||Good||Good|
Source: Authors, 2018
Regarding information accessibility, both offline and online information are considered important. It is essential for business providers to always connect online with customers (ADA, 2017). Research finds that all of the coffee shops have their own official website and a diverse social media presence. A website that follows accessibility guidelines and is barrier-free shows that customers are valued, and their business is welcome (ADA, 2017). This enables people to access not only in-store but also on an online platform (Lestari, Wiastuti, & Adiati, 2017). The information content is consistent across all platforms. The only drawback is that the language option available is only English.
Regarding transportation accessibility, all the coffee shops were located in the most developed city in Indonesia which is an advantage. Research finds that all of the coffee shops could be reached by all means of transportation: public, private and walking, at affordable transportation fees. People have a choice starting from traditional transportation to the online platform transportation. However, walking facilities around the area must be improved.
Regarding common requirements accessibility, companies must start from very simple things such as signage to attract customers, to get noticed by people that will eventually drive sales (Gray, 2016). Research finds that all of the coffee shops complied with signage such as directional signage and informational signage. All were well written and well located. Parking space accessibility is also well provided by the shopping malls. Horizontal movement was clear with no obstacles in the way. On the contrary, the communication modes are very low; none are equipped with braille or sign language. This also applies to vertical movement and public hygiene. SB gives a good example by providing a private toilet inside the store in addition to the toilets that are provided by the shopping mall.
Regarding universal design, different customers have different needs in the hospitality industry (Rossettii, 2009). Research finds that most of the cashier areas or order taking counters are in the height of normal people and do not accommodate for children and people with disabilities. However, the space and size are appropriate for customers to move around.
Regarding accessibility, research finds that maps were not provided in all of the coffee shops for either indoor and outdoor dining areas or emergency evacuation maps. The maps must be located in a place that can be seen by everyone. However, the information of operational hours was well written and could be seen easily by everyone who walks towards the store. The same applies to the behavior recommendations inside the store; they comply by the use of pictograms, is written in English and Indonesian and is placed in a good location.
The overall compliance of accessible tourism for coffee shops in Jakarta’s shopping malls is considered good. The most accessible factor is indeed the transportation factor with excellent indicator ratings for all seven coffee shops. The common requirements factor is considered excellent for SB, good for CB, BS, DJ, KL, and poor for EX and LB. Meanwhile, the information and accessibility factors are considered good for all. The last factor, universal design, is considered good for BS, CB, DJ, KL, LB, and poor for EX and BS. Accessibility plays a huge role in assuring the coffee shop experience for all. Coffee shops must be accessible to not only cater to ordinary people or people without disabilities, but also people with disabilities, illness, accident victims, pregnant women, people of advanced age and who are carrying big sized luggage. Then the coffee shop experience can be enjoyed by everyone. Providing coffee shops for all definitely requires improvement in many aspects, but will eventually bring benefit to both the company and the customers.
All coffee shop information should be provided in the Indonesian language. Emergency evacuation maps and store maps for the customers are also advisable to be accommodated. Further research can be conducted with the quantitative method to test hypotheses, correlate customer expectation and management strategy by involving a wider research scope.
This research was supported by the 2018 BINUS Internal Research Grant. Furthermore, the authors would like to give appreciation for everyone we have met and interviewed along the way.
Ambrose, I. (2016, September 27). UNTWO. Retrieved from UNTWO: http://cf.cdn.unwto.org/sites/all/files/pdf/ambrose-world-tourism-day-27-sept-fin-small-file.pdf
Darcy, S., & Dickson, T. (2009). A whole-of-life approach to tourism: the case for accessible tourism. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 16(1), 32-44.
Essential Accessibility. (2017, July 21st). Retrieved from Essential Accessibility: https://www.essentialaccessibility.com/blog/ada-guidelines/
Fowler, M. (2017, June 6th). A Simple Guide to Using the ADA Standards for Accessible Design Guidelines.
Gray, K. (2016, April 30th). Types of Signage No Retailer Can Afford to Ignore.
Hou, C.-I. (2013). Study On Decision-Making For Café Management Alternatives. International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology (IJCSIT), 5(6).
Hung, L.-M. (2012). A Study of Consuming Behaviors of Budget Coffee. Business and Management Resear, 1(1), 48- 61.
ITF. (2017). https://www.itf-oecd.org/content/improving-transport-accessibility-all-guide-good-practice. Retrieved from ITF OECD: https://www.itf-oecd.org/content/improving-transport-accessibility-all-guide-good-practice
Karina, A. (2016, June 7th). The Rise and Rise of Third-Wave Coffee Joints. Jakarta.
Karlsson, H., & Karlsson, J. (2009). Coffee Tourism; A community development tool. Handelshögskolan BBS, Balting Business School, Kalmar.
Kasnaeny, K., Sudiro, A., Hadiwidjojo, D., & Rohman, F. (2013). Patronage Buying Motives of Coffee shop’s Consumers. OSR Journal of Business and Management, 8(3), 19-22.
Kim, S.-H., & Lee, S. (2016). Promoting customers’ involvement with service brands: evidence from coffee shop customers. Journal of Services Marketing, 31(7), 733-744.
Kleidas, M., & Jolliffe, L. (2010). Coffee attraction experiences: A narrative study. Tourism Pleminary Communication, 58(1), 61-73.
Kriyantono, R. (2012). Teknik Praktis Riset Komunikasi. Jakarta: Kencana Prenada Media Group.
Lestari, N.S., Wiastuti, R.D., & Adiati, ,M.P. (2017). Implementasi Accessible Tourism Pada Bus Wisata Jakarta Explorer Mpok Siti. Jurnal Hospitality dan Pariwisata, 3(1)
Morrison, A. (2010). Hospitality and Travel Marketing (4th ed.). New York, USA: DELMAR CENCAGE Learning.
NC State University. (1997). Principles of Universal Design. Retrieved from The Center for Universal Design: http://www.ncsu.edu/ncsu/design/cud/about_ud/udprinciplestext.htm
O’Connor, A. (2018, March 14th). thejournal.ie. Retrieved from thejournal.ie: http://www.thejournal.ie/coffee-culture-ireland-whats-next-3903129-Mar2018/
Rebstock, M. (2017). Economic Benefit of Improved Accessibility to Transport Systems and the Role of Transport in Fostering Tourism for All. University of Applied Sciences, Transport and Spatial Planning Institute, Applied Sciences, Transport and Spatial Planning. Germany: OECD- ITF.
Rossettii, R. (2009, May 15th). A Universal Design Approach for the Hospitality Industry. Las Vegas.
Seymour, A. (2016, April 7th). Three types of coffee shop customer, reveals BRITA study. Food Service Equipment Journal.
Shenoy, S. S. (2005). Food Tourism and the Culinary Tourist. USA: Clemson University.
Soewadji, J. (2012). Pengantar Metodologi Penelitian. Jakarta: Mitra Wacana Media.
Sugiarto. (2015). Metode Statistika Bisnis. Tangerang : Matana Publishing Utama.
Suliyanto. (2014). Statistika Non Parametrik. Yogyakarta : ANDI .
Tumanan, M. A., & Lansangan, J. R. (2012). More than just a cuppa coffee: A multi-dimensional approach towards analyzing the factors that define place attachment. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(2), 529-534.
UNWTO. (2013). Recommendations on Accesible Tourism. Spain: World Tourism Organization (UNWTO).
UNWTO. (2016). Accessible Tourism for All: An Opportunity within Our Reach. Spain: World Tourism Organization (UNWTO).
UNWTO. (2016). Recommendations on Accessible Information in Tourism. Spain: World Tourism Organization (UNWTO).
Weinberg, B., & Bealer, B. (2001). The World of Caffeine: The Science and Culture of the World’s Most Popular Drug. New York, NY, USA: Routledge.
Wiastuti, R. D., Adiati, M. P., & Lestari, N. S. (2018). Implementation of Accessible Tourism Concept at Museums in Jakarta. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 126(1), 012061. Medan: IOP.
Wolf, E. (2006). Culinary tourism: The hidden harvest. Iowa: Kendall Hunt Publishing.
Published at : Updated