How to cite this article:
Wiyana, Tri., Putranto, Trias Septyoari., & Zulkarnain, Arif. (2018). The Impact of Hotel Employee Motivation on Hospitality Performance (Case in Alila Hotel Jakarta, Indonesia). Presented at The 5th International Conference on Management, Hospitality & Tourism and Accounting 2018 (IMHA 2018). 3-4 September 2018. Bina Nusantara University. To be published in Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities (JSSH)- Scopus Indexed
The Impact of Hotel Employee Motivation on Hospitality Performance
(Case in Alila Hotel Jakarta, Indonesia)
Tri Wiyana, Trias Septyoari Putranto, Arif Zulkarnain
Hotel Management Department, Faculty of Economics and Communication
Bina Nusantara University
Jl. KH. Syahdan No.9, Palmerah, Jakarta 11480, Indonesia
Phone number (021) 5345830, Fax number (021) 5300244
The purpose of this research is to find out how much influence Motivation on Employee Performance at Hotel Alila Jakarta. The research method used in this research is a quantitative method. The analytical tool used is descriptive analysis and simple linear regression analysis. The results obtained through this research showed that motivation gives effect to Employee Performance. From the results of simple linear regression analysis obtained value of correlation coefficient of 0.714 and significant value of 0.05 which states that there is a very strong relationship level and significant influence. The value of the determination coefficient of 0.509 this means the amount of influence Motivation on Employee Performance is 50.9%, while the rest of 49.1% influenced by other variables not examined in this research.
Keywords: Employee Hospitality, Motivation, Performance
Human resources is a very important thing and must be claimed with an end goal to accomplish the objectives of the association or organization. Human resources are the fundamental components of the association contrasted with other asset components, for example, capital, innovation, since people themselves control different variables. Human resources are an essential thing and must be claimed with an end goal to accomplish the objectives of the association or organization. Albeit numerous utilitarian zones of an association are regularly engaged with creating and executing manageability activities. Human resources specialists are extraordinarily set to make a noteworthy commitment, around there because of the imperative individuals related measurement of this kind of activity, and in addition the scope of craftsmanship and science aptitudes normally connected with the Human resources work itself (Schroeder, 2012).
Hospitality business in its activity dependably requires a lot of labor which isn’t less, this is on account of it cannot be utilized human substitute to do proficient administration, firm however inviting and have a decent relationship in the meantime. It is essential for any association to plan standard practices for administration of Human resources. The hospitality business is fundamentally work serious and this makes human asset administration rehearses, especially imperative and it ought to create viable human asset practices and arrangements to make aggressive progress. This paper concentrated examinations the human asset rehearses in the lodging business and the issues looked by the human asset administrators in executing the human resource practices (Kumar, Mohan, and Arumugam, 2016). Based on data from the Central Bureau of Statistics, the average worker per business in the hospitality sector, especially of DKI Jakarta, has decreased as follows:
Table 1. Average Hotel Workers per Year
DKI Jakarta (2012-2015)
|Year||Average Worker Per Business|
Source:Central Bureau of Statistics (2016)
The data indicate that the test of the Human Resources Department in keeping up its representatives to get by in an oversaw industry by understanding and comprehension, the eagerness of its representatives, and additionally giving inspiration to enhance the execution of its laborers. Not just that, a great connection between kindred representatives likewise should be viewed as, the specialists are relied upon to cooperate well, shared associations with partners, accordingly computerization must be done in the field of the organization and budgetary with the point of human in doing its obligations so the lodging workers have additional time and chance to set up great relations with visitors through giving administrations that fulfill clients. The suggestions for the comprehension of the move of these factors in cordiality and tourism financial gainfulness, and in addition in HR administration approaches and singular prosperity (Borralha, Jesus, Pinto, and Viseu, 2016). Agreeing (Zahari, Hanafiah, Othman, Jamaluddin, and Zulkifly, 2010), numerous scientists everywhere throughout the globe expressed that one of the reasons for poor progress rate of cordiality understudies into vocation in the business is that new understudy have an implausible picture of working life in the business (Barron and Maxwell, 1993; 1997; Kusluvan and Kulsluvan, 2000; Zahari and Fraser, 2004). However, it is additionally trusted that this phenomenon may likewise originate from different elements.
The employment system of a Hotel likewise has no noteworthy distinction contrasted with organization organizations occupied with different fields, aside from the instructive particulars, competency measures and the nature of identity of its representatives. Laws utilized as a part of the administration and administration of work at the Hotel were under a similar law, as connected by the legislature and still in actuality (Kemetrian Tenaga Kerja Republik Indonesia, 2003). It is crucial for any organization, particularly in the service industry, to comprehend and get a handle on the consumers’ desires and observations relating to the expansive scope of components influencing customers’ assessment of service, their fulfillment and steadfastness, and friendliness is an administration area where the essentialness of these components develops exponentially. The requests of hotel visitors and their desires tend to change progressively in the cutting-edge lodging industry. At the point when requested to characterize benefit, most lodging visitors (Mola, Jusoh, 2011; (Maric, Marinkovic, Maric, and Dimitrovski, 2016).
Motivation has long been a management task, giving rise to the most difficult and important problems to solve. Management has used many methods to improve motivation. A traditional approach is applied by many companies, such as increasing wages and improving benefits. Motivation is needed, someone in carrying out its activities. To date, the relationships between these types of work motivation and their impacts on mental health in hospitality workers worldwide have not been thoroughly investigated (Kotera et al., 2017). However, in Northern Cyprus autonomous motivation was positively related to job satisfaction and organizational attachment, and negatively related to emotional burnout among hotel workers (Karatepe & Uludag, 2007; (Nadia Ayub & Shagufta Rafif, 2011)).
Employee performance can be used for employees, employees, employees, employees, employees, employees, employees, employees, and employees. The decline in performance that usually occurs in the human resources feel bored and lazy will work. Things like this should not be left alone because it will adversely affect the company and the achievements of human resources itself. Motivation of hotel staff to work all the more adequately to accomplish the goals of the association is likely the hardest assignment of the administration group. Motivation behind why the ebb and flow inquire about proposed as on an observational premise, to attempt to discover a response to the inquiry: “What kind of motivational incentives should be used to increase employee performance” (Larisa & Tampu, 2015).
Hotel Alila as one of four-star hotels in Jakarta, participate and increase human power to spur the competitive advantage of the hotel. One way done by Hotel Alila Jakarta is to use, reliable human resources. In observing Alila Jakarta Hotel, and speaking directly with some employees, the authors found the staffing system used by Hotel Alila Jakarta is to provide Probation period for 3 months for new employees, after which the employee is contracted for 1 year, the employee’s employment contract will be extended in accordance with performance work. The problems that the authors find that employees feel the duration of promotion given by Hotel Alila Jakarta to employees who have worked in the hotel more than 5 years.
Based on the description of the background of thought as the researcher can identify the problem about the effect of motivation on performance at Hotel Alila Jakarta. The purpose of this study is to get what the greatest motivation of employees produces better performance. The research method used is a quantitative approach to simple regression analysis.
Any modern lodging setting relies upon immaterial resources that can be viewed as representative information and aptitudes. Notwithstanding consumer loyalty contemplates, worker inspiration, representative fulfillment has been altogether inspected by experienced specialists. The significance of picking the fitting type of inspiration apparatus at hotel business to expand efficiency. The examination proposes an “association, inspiration show” cultivated from clarification at the literature (Çetin, 2013). The motivating forces that ought to be utilized to build representative execution includes consolidating them agreeably that contemplates the requirements of every worker (Larisa & Tampu, 2015). It has been researched that the adequacy of inspiration is critical and imperative to rouse representatives to their execution. This demonstrates the vast majority of the factors are ideal to worker execution, however a few territories should be enhanced to enhance representative inspiration levels in the providing food part that will help enhance the execution level (Hazra, Ghosh, & Sengupta, 2015). Part as a chief in charge of giving a remarkable administration encounter, and particularly to prepare your staff to convey such administration is fundamental, contend that inspiring your workers is as basic for great administration as is preparing them (Hazra et al., 2015).
WORLD TOURISM ORGANIZATION predicts that the number of people traveling will triple by 2020. Therefore, the related industry, often referred to as Hospitality Industry will develop into the world’s largest industry. To make a feasible, long term competitive advange, accommodation organizations should likewise address the standard idea of numerous passage level staff employments that are the hardest to fill. Thus, organizations should exploit bring down cost innovation and computerize routine occupation assignments. The administration escalated nature of the inn area infers that the nature of an inn’s items depends vigorously on its representatives. The production of worker structure relies upon the accompanying: extent of the inn limit, task, and introduction towards particular visitor section. With a specific end goal to accomplish benefit quality, the representatives must be prepared and fit the bill to comprehend and fulfill the customers’ needs (Wojciech, 2017).
The meaning of the hospitality personnel used as a part of the investigation considers work in the room for hotel and food & beverage administrations segment and furthermore work in related areas in key friendliness related occupations (Report, 2015). Define personnel hospitability as “customer perceptions of employee characteristics of hospitality during the service encounter and the guest-host interaction”. They likewise bring up that undertaking execution and hospitality output are distinctive in their results. For instance, workers’ errand exhibitions empower visitors to profit practically, while their cordiality execution influences them to respond sincerely (Teng and Chang, 2013; (Ažić, 2017)). The expert instruction, e.g. gourmet expert, positively affects execution in restaurant business / organizations. Representatives with more elevated amounts of training incorporating college understudies in inn organizations additionally affect execution. The area factor demonstrated that hotel business and food sector business arranged in downtown areas perform superior to those found somewhere else (Borralha et al., 2016).
Importance of Personnel Motivation at Hotel Business
Organizations today from all around the world strive to motivate their employees. Most of the organizations realized that the action of motivating employees can drive to meet organizational goals. The motivated employee relates to the manner of self-commitment and self -satisfaction which can increase their job performance. Motivation theory examines the process of motivation, improve crowdsourcing platforms with the inclusion of important motivational features (Ahmad., et al, 2017). It can also serve as reference for organisations for formulating policies to regulate idea contribution It seeks to understand and explain the reasons why people behave the way they do, the effort and direction they are taking. During this century the concept of motivation has received substantial attention. The hospitality business in Kenya had conceived various procedures adapted towards rousing representatives, such techniques did not satisfactorily react to the desires of the focused on workers (Wasike, 2015).
Motivation as a mental procedure coming about because of the equal association between the individual and the condition that influences a man’s decision, exertion and constancy (Latham & Ernst, 2006; (Jurgena, Rimovica, Economics, & Development, 2017)). The Expectancy Theory of inspiration as created by Victor Vroom is a procedure hypothesis of inspiration and it finds an essential place in the writing of motivational speculations, the Expectancy Theory takes a gander at inspiration in a more far reaching and practical than a portion of alternate hypotheses. Despite the fact that it is a more unpredictable hypothesis of inspiration, and it depends on presence of mind brain science of workers and says that they will be roused to act when there is an anticipation that their conduct can bring about the accomplishment of wanted results (Parijat & Bagga, 2014).
Maslow’s hypothesis has upheld the qualification between the insufficiencies and development needs yet demonstrated that not all individuals can fulfill their higher request needs at work. Agreeing the consequences of the exploration supervisors from higher echelons of association’s can fulfill both their development and inadequacy needs bring down level directors can fulfill just their insufficiency needs of the activity (Kaur, 2013).
Performance Tools and Methods
A performance called the job performance or actual performance or level of performance, which is the level of success of employees in completing the work. Performance is not an individual characteristic, such as talent, or ability, but a manifestation of the talent or ability itself.
Led a far-reaching concentrate to assess the connections between human asset administration rehearses and ﬁrm execution of Taiwanese cutting edge ﬁrms in the Hsinchu science-based modern stop. They found that HR Management practices, for example, preparing and improvement, collaboration, beneﬁts, human asset arranging, and execution evaluation have signiﬁcant impact on worker profitability. What’s more, beneﬁts and human asset arranging are adversely identified with worker turnover (Chang and Chen 2002; (Lee, Lee, & Wu, 2010)).
Performance Management has come to imply in excess of a rundown of solitary practices meant to gauge and adjust worker execution. Furthermore, it is viewed as an incorporated procedure in which directors work with their representatives to set desires, measure and audit results, and reward execution, keeping in mind the end goal to enhance worker execution, with a definitive plan to decidedly influence hierarchical achievement (Mondy, Noe & Premeaux, 2002; (den Hartog, Boselie, & Paauwe, 2004).
Hotel’s personnel regularly assemble their vocations in light of the prevailing profession stay which at that point turns into the focal point of their vocations, though this grapple may develop after some time as an individual further comprehends individual qualities. There are eight vocation stays: specialized or useful skill, general administration fitness, self-sufficiency as well as autonomy, security and soundness, entrepreneurial imagination, unadulterated test, way of life and feeling of administration or devotion to a reason (Dessler, 1997, p. 389-390; (Antoneta, 2013).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
An observational study design was employed in order to draw inferences from this sample of Hotel Alila Jakarta workers to the general population of this workforce. This research model is described as follows:
Table 2. Variables and Measurement
|Motivation (X)||1. Financial needs|
|2. Quality of work life|
|3. Self employee|
|5. Reward and benefit|
|Performance (Y)||1. High-performance|
|2. Optimization Staff|
|5. Team work|
Figure 1. Research Model
The population in this study was all permanent employees at Hotel Alila Jakarta, which amounted to 215 employees with 70 repondens. Research was conducted on beginning 2017.
Table 3. Employee of Hotel Alila Jakarta
|Department||Number of Employees|
|Finance & Accounting||17|
|Kitchen & Stewarding||50|
|Sales & Marketing||19|
|Gym & Spa||13|
Resources: Hotel Alila Jakarta
The procedure of ethical approval was obtained from the human resources management department at the Alila hotel. The next step fills the questionnaire to the workers as well as the work motivation steps outlined below. Descriptive statistics are generated, and the level of each type of work motivation is identified. Correlation analysis was then undertaken to investigate the relationship between job motivation subscale and worker profile. All analyzes were performed using IBM SPSS version 24.
The worker profile questionnaire and information relating to (i) gender, (ii) age, (iii) years of experience working in the hospitality industry, (iv) education. The 20-item instrument Work Scale, Motivation and Employee Performance. Each item is announced on a five-point Likert scale (from 1 = Strongly Disagree ‘to 5 =’ Strongly Agree ‘).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The discussion of this research’s findings follows the analytical from motivation and performance.
Table 4. Descriptive Analysis of Motivation
|Item||Statement of Motivation||Mean||Min||Max|
|1||Work can meet family needs||3.83||2||5|
|2||Provides facilities for employees (Employee Cafeteria, Locker Room, Split Room)||3.94||3||5|
|3||Employees feel safe working||3.97||3||5|
|4||Employees feel safe and comfortable working||3.76||3||5|
|5||Considers employees as their co-workers||3.73||2||5|
|6||Employees love working||3.64||2||5|
|7||Leaders are very concerned about employee performance||3.83||2||5|
|8||Leaders appreciate for employees who excellent||3.89||2||5|
|9||Employees proudly work||3.94||2||5|
|10||Employees strive to earn work award “Alila Star”||3.69||2||5|
Resources: Data Processing
Table 5. Descriptive Analysis of Performance
|Item||Statement of Performance||Mean||Min||Max|
|1||Employees can do all the work with good results||4.06||3||5|
|2||Employees always work according to SOP (Standard Operating Procedure)||4.16||3||5|
|3||Employees can complete all the work quickly||4.19||3||5|
|4||The company sets the target of work with full calculation||4.10||3||5|
|5||Employees can manage work time well||4.19||3||5|
|6||Employees can complete job responsibilities given the leadership is completed on time||4.30||3||5|
|7||Employee attendance is highly regarded by the leadership||4.13||3||5|
|8||Employees are never absent while working||4.19||3||5|
|9||Employees can work well with all co-workers||4.21||3||5|
|10||Work is done with teamwork||4.16||3||5|
Resources: Data Processing
Table 6. Model Summary
Resources: SPSS Data Processing
From the summary model table above shows that the number of column R, is the relationship between motivation and employee performance (correlation coefficient) is 0.714 which means there is a strong and direct or positive relationship between work motivation on employee performance. R square states the magnitude of the influence of motivation on employee performance (coefficient of determination) is 0.509 This means the magnitude of the effect of motivation on employee performance is 50.9%, while the remaining 49.1% (100% – 50.9%) is influenced by variables – other variables not examined in this study.
|Model||Unstandardized Coefficients||Standardized Coefficients||T||Sig.|
Resources: SPSS Data Processing
Based on the table of regression coefficient test results, then obtained are analyzed that the regression equation to estimate employee performance is influenced by the motivation is Y = 22.042 + 0.514 X where Y is the employee’s performance and X is the motivation.
Hypothesis test is formulated as follows:
Ho: There is no significant influence between employee motivation and
Ha: There is a significant influence between employee motivation and performance decision-making:
If, t_count ≤ t_table then Ho accepted and Ha rejected
If, t_count> t_table then Ho is rejected and Ha accepted
SPSS processed results obtained t_hitung = 8,400. And to calculate the value of t is as follows: a = 0.05; df = n-k; = 70-1 = 69 = = 1.995 (based on the results of the attachment). Because t_hitung> t_table, that is 8,400> 1,995 then Ho is rejected, which means Ha is accepted because there is a significant influence between the motivation on employee performance at Hotel Alila Jakarta.
According to the results of the respondent’s answer on variable X (Motivation) on average with the highest mean value is in item number 3 that is 3.97 where statement number 3 is “Employees feel secure their work at Hotel Alila Jakarta” Statement number 3 is an indicator of the protection of occupational safety, indicates that the safety assurance and employee’s sense of security at work provided by Hotel Alila Jakarta can increase employee motivation.
According to the respondent’s results on the variable X (Motivation) on average with the lowest mean value 3.64 is in question number 6 which contains “Employees feel happy working at Hotel Alila Jakarta” dimension of this statement is Social Needs. Employees feel safe at work, but the social interaction that occurs in the work environment at Hotel Alila Jakarta still needs to be improved.
According to the respondent’s answer on variable Y (employee performance) it can be seen that the highest mean value is item number 16 with mean value 4.30 where the statement of number 16 is “Employee can finish the job responsibilities given by the leader finished on time” which is indicative of dimension Independence. It can be explained that Hotel Alila Jakarta employees have independence in a way, can complete the work in accordance with the deadline set by the leadership.
According to the respondent’s answer on variable Y (employee performance) is item number 11 with the lowest mean value of 4.06 which contains “Employee can do all work with good result” which is an indicator of job quality dimension. Hotel Alila Jakarta employees can complete the work according to the given deadline, and the result of work produced is in accordance with Standard Hotel Alila Jakarta.
Based on the results of research in the previous chapter, it is known that there is influence Motivation on Employee Performance, then the performance of employees will continue to increase if they get the appropriate motivation with the employees need such as employees who work well, given rewards so that other employees can be motivated to get rewards like those employees who work well. The respondents in this research ranked as top five factors that motivate them as future employees as follows: Job Satisfaction, promotions/expectations, Recognition, Good salary, and organizational/management styles. In this study only use one independent variable, so less able to explain any factors that affect the employee’s performance completely. Therefore, for further research, it is advisable to add another independent variable.
The authors are grateful to Prof. Bahtiar Saleh Abbas as Director of Research &Technology Transfer Office and Dezie Leonarda Warganegara, Ph.D. as the Dean of the Faculty of Economics and Communication, as well as the Hotel Management Lecturer who provides the facilities required for the preparation of this paper.
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