How to cite:
A.G. Subakti & T. L. Anita. (2018). Eco Friendly Attitude and Eco Friendly Intention towards the Word of Mouth in Hotel Borobudur Jakarta. Presented in the 2nd Southeast Asia Academic Forum on Sustainable Development. December 4th, 2018. Jogjakarta. (To be Published in Scopus proceeding)
A.G. Subakti ¹, Tiurida Lily Anita ²
Hotel Management Department, Faculty of Economics & Communication,
Bina Nusantara University,
Jakarta, Indonesia 11480
Keywords: Green Hotel, Eco Friendly Attitude, Eco Friendly Intention, WOM
The development of Tourists behavior has move and turn toward understanding that leads to responsible tourism. One of them is followed by a tendency in making use of tourism products that are environmentally friendly. As a country with high potential natural resources, it is important that Indonesia apply the concept of sustainable tourism. In addition, tourists also has options. Environmentally friendly Hotel did program such as water efficiency, saving energy and reduce of solid waste that can help protect Earth. The impact of the environment can result in pollution on the ground, air and water. Awareness are demonstrated through the attitudes of tourist who also support the environment. Eco-Friendly attitude is shown by supporting the implementation of the Green Hotel with words of mouth. Eco-friendly intention tourists in supporting the implementation of Green Hotel allegedly be helpful to spread the program environmentally friendly both inside and outside the Hotel. The study is done to influence eco-friendly attitude towards words of mouth on Green Hotel implementation at Borobudur Hotel, Jakarta, with eco-friendly intention as intervening variable.
Tourism has been considered to be superior sectors in a number of countries. It had proven as a sector with significant contribution. There are a lot of indicator that can be shown as the success of tourism, such as the increasing investment in the development of the tourism facilities and infrastructure , the number of foreign tourist visit, expansion of existing job opportunities, as well as the government income in form of tax that has been activating the economy in the country. Travelers develop its behavior (tourist attitude) has been move and turn to understand behavior that leads to responsible tourism .One of them is followed by a tendency in the harness of environmentally friendly tourism product. Nowadays tourists has become increasingly smart and selective to choose hotel that is consistently applying the practice of environmentally friendly (green hotel) by taking advantage resources energy efficient and based local products or joined in green industry (Eco green Hotel, Eco Suites, Green Hotel Association). (Sinangjoyo, 2013). From the results of various surveys from the year of 2008 according to the national leisure travel agencies the survey was carried out, approximately 85 % an attitude of tourists more care to the environment (Crocker, 2008) and 34 % travelers are not quite satisfied and have occurred with the hotel across the political spectrum has needed more energy efficient environmentally friendly for the accommodation of travelers and around 38 % from the management of hotels have provides green facilities (Clausing, 2008). Indonesia is a country that has fascinating natural resources, support the application of the concept of sustainable tourism (Amanda, 2017). Because of the large number with natural resources which, the implementation of the concept of this green will provide a positive effect on Indonesia tourism (Cahyu, 2017). Green hotel is a concept of applying the nature friendly and the ecology on the hotel industry by emphasizing the program in reducing natural resources, energy and reduce the results of waste (Sinangjoyo, 2013). The purpose of the management of hotel in applying the green concept in his company are intended to lower the use of energy, reduce water pollution, air pollution, solid waste pollution as well as the use of the resources in an efficient way (Yasa, 2018). The changing behavior in tourists (tourist attitude) toward the environment can cause potential great change the to the hotel industry (Hsieh, 2012). This will change the company orientation of which were only focus on the economic objective and environmental sustainability (Setiawati, 2014). Tourists who are starting to realize that buying attitude can harm the environment, decided to start purchase environmentally friendly products even though they have to pay more for the product (Lee, 2011). The implementation of a green hotel good will attract consumers attention that affects the consumers to respond positively to support the concept and indirectly consumers have intention to promote hotel thorugh word of mouth (Han, 2011). Based on the background, researchers want to explore further information about the impact of Eco Friendly Attitude and Eco Friendly Intention Towards the Word Of Mouth in Hotel Borobudur Jakarta.
- Literature Review
The term green refer to the action of reducing the impact to the environment, such as eco purchasing or recycle (Lee, Kim, Chang dan Huh, 2011). Green product is environmentally friendly product that would not bring harmful effects for others (Lasuin & Ching, 2014). Green Hotel Association (2017) Stated that Being green means guests, staff and management are healthier. There’s just no doubt that when odors, fumes, soot, droplets and residues of toxic, poisonous chemicals are not in the air, on our food or on anything we touch, we are not absorbing or breathing them. Sooner or later all properties will be sold, and any green property will demand a higher price because its value is much enhanced by lower utility bills per square foot, its healthier aspects and owner care. Along with environmental awareness that rises, hotel have started to participate in environmentally friendly action such as using back a towel and dirty sheets, recycling and make an effort to save water and energy (Millar & Baloglu, 2011).
Eco-friendly attitude is a psychological reaction to the environment shown by individuals and it affects their behavior (Chen, 2014). Eco friendly attitude generally associated with the level of the benefit of someone on the environment. Eco-friendly attitude consisting of some dimensions which are (Jokom, 2014) :
- The importance of become an environment friendly
- Discomfort do environmentally friendly
- Serious environmental problems
- The level of the company responsibilities
Consumer experience associated behavioral intention, where more positive consumer experience, the more probability consumers are willing to use these services (Kuruuzum, 2010). Eco-friendly intention is the possibility of hotel consumers who want to stay in green hotel, give a positive word-of-mouth and the willingness to pay more for a green hotel .Eco-friendly intention consisting of several dimensions which are (Han, 2011):
- Intention to visit
- Intention to spread positive word of mouth
- Willingness to pay more
Words of mouth
WOM as a way can communicate from the one person to the other , where is the information not feel a slight recipients commercial value when the giver information recommended matters relating to brand, a particular product or service (Cengiz, 2007).
There are three basic motives in WOM (Sernovitz, 2006) which are:
- Your listener likes you and your product
- Talk to you make your listener feel better, and
- Talk to make people feel connected with a group.
Next indicators from the concept of WOM is as follows (Babin, 2005);
- Talking, stages by which somebody have the will to discuss positively about the quality of a product to others,
- Promoting, stages by which consumers have had the experience enjoy a product so that it can be dealt and disseminated to others,
- The selling, stages by which consumers influence others to continue to purchase products of the issues discussed
H1 : Eco-friendly Attitude Had a positive impact on Words of Mouth
H2 : Eco-friendly Attitude Had a positive impact on Eco-friendly intention
H3 : Eco-friendly Intention Had a positive impact on Words of Mouth
- Research Methodology
Type of research
Research methods that were used in this research is research descriptive .With sample is determined by non-probability the sampling method of .Descriptive research covering the collection of primary data to the spread of the questionnaire to test hypotheses (Kuncoro, 2009).
Operational definition variables
|Eco Friendly Attitude||1. The importance of environmental issues
2. Discomfort in doing environmentally friendly
3. Serious environmental matters
4. The level of corporate responsibility
|1. By recycling will reduce pollution
2. Recycling is very important to conserve resources natural resources
3. By recycling create lots of problems
4. Separate a litter for by recycling creates a lot of problems.
5. Indonesia have sufficient amount of water, electricity and trees
6. The earth is a closed system that at the end everybody will back the way it was
7. Hotel care about the environment
8. Hotel care about the use of good food packaging paper or plastic
|Eco Friendly Intention||1. Intention to visit
2. Willingness to pay more
|1. Willing to stay in a green concept hotel
2. Making effort to stay in a green concept hotel
3. Acceptance to stay in a green concept hotel
4. Willingnes to pay more
5. Acceptance in paying more
6. Understand in paying more
|Words of Mouth||1. Talking
|1. Willingness to speak positive
2. Disseminate information
3. Influence other people to buy ~
Source : Processed research data, 2018
The profile of respondents
150 samples has bee taken. They were selected from 137 valid sample. They were chosen based on the sample that the sample are guests that stayed in the Borobudur Hotel which implements the concept of green hotel , they have heard the concept of green hotel , and their range above 18 years.
The Profile of Respondents
|Frequency of stay at Green Hotel per year||Once
|Factor Influenced staying at Green Hotel
Note: IDR is Indonesian Rupiah
Source : Processed research data, 2018
The technique of data analysis
In the following analysis of data in this research, the path analysis is used which is made up of the influence of directly or indirectly .The analysis is the expansion of from our analysis of multiple regression, or the analysis is the use of regression analysis to estimating causality relations between variables that are predetermined in advance according to the theory (Ghozali, 2005). In this research parameter the relationship between eco-friendly attitudes, words of mouth and eco-friendly intention shown in figure 1:
Relationship Parameter between Variables
Source : Processed research data, 2018
The direct effect
The direct effect in the path analysis running on this research indicated by p1 parameter .The value of p1 is considered as standardize coefficients (beta) or the results of eco-friendly attitude (x1) regression of words of mouth (y)
Indirect effect indicated by p2 and p3 parameter. p2 value and value p3.The parameters p2 and p3 is considered as standardize coefficients (beta) or the first one is regression eco-friendly against words of mouth, regression both the attitude eco-friendly against eco-friendly intention, and a third regression eco attitude friendly against words of mouth. Indirect effect eco attitude friendly against words of mouth is p2 x p3
The total effect from path analysis is a calculation from the direct effect and indirect effect variables. Eco-friendly attitude against words of mouth. The direct effect of is p1, and the inderect effects are p2 and p3. So that the total effect can be shown as follows = p1 + (p2xp3)
- Analysis and Discussion
There are three variables in this research that has been analyze by using path analysis which are the eco-friendly attitude, eco-friendly intention and words of mouth .There are three parameters which are p1, p2, and p3. The result of the regression, can be shown in following;
The direct effect:
Coefficient Regression Eco Friendly Attitude to WOM
Based on table 3, it appears that the p1 is standardized coefficients (beta) to eco attitude friendly against words of mouth is -0,294 , the significance of 0,000 or less than 0,1 so significant .A direct influence on research is eco attitude friendly against words of mouth is -0,294 .
The Indirect effect:
Coefficient Regression Eco Friendly Attitude, Eco Friendly Intention and WOM
As shown in table 4. It can be seen that value p2 is standardized coefficients (beta) for eco-friendly attitude to eco-friendly intention is value 0.889 with significance of 0,003 or less than 0.1 so that the impact are significant. Next value parameter p3 obtained from the standardized coefficients (beta) for eco-friendly intention to words of mouth is value 1.113 and the significance of 0,000 or less than 0.1 so significant .Indirect effect to research this is eco-friendly attitude to words of mouth through eco-friendly intention , its value was: p2 x p3 = (0.889 x 1.113) = 0.989
The total effect are total sum from the influence of direct effect and indirect effect variables. Eco-friendly attitude to words of mouth .The calculation is as follows = p1 + (p2xp3) = -0,294 + 0.989 = 0,695. The total effect is 0,695 shows that there are significant impact between eco-friendly attitudes against words of mouth through eco-friendly intention.
The Regression Equation Model
The first regression equation model first in research is e1 , shown in table 5 , and the second regression equation model in this research is e2 can be seen in table 6
Regression Summary of EF Attitude to EF Intention
The value of r R² is 0.790.This indicates how big is the influence of eco-friendly attitude to eco-friendly intention is 79 %. The value of e1 = e1 = √(1-0.790) = 0.458 or as many as 45,8 %.It means the number of variance that cannot be explained by eco-friendly attitude to eco-friendly intention is of 45,8 %.
Regression Summary of EF Attitude, EF Intention and WOM
The value of R² is 0.743.This shows the influence of eco-friendly attitude to words of mouth through eco-friendly intention variable is of 74.3 %. The value of e2= √(1-0.743) = 0.507 or similar to 50,7 %. It means the number of variance that cannot be explained by eco-friendly attitude to words of mouth through eco-friendly intention is of 50,7 %.
Based on the analysis of the data and the discussion that has been carried out, the conclusion is as follow:
- The first hypothesis stated that there is a direct influence significantly from eco-friendly attitude to words of mouth on the implementation of green hotel guests program at the Borobudur hotel. This is in accordance with great interest in consumers of the Borobudur hotel with the green concept implementation program. Consumers feel the attitude of those who support the concept of the implementation of green on hotels prove their commitment to support the program of environmentally friendly. The implementation of green concept hotel by recycling paper, garbage and plastic. Also ways in reducing electricity and water conducted the Borobudur hotel here has made consumers satisfied. The inconvenience for recycling also a program based on opinion the consumers was never a problem. Borobudur hotel Invite the guests to participate in saving energy by socializing the program through green flyers that is placed on the room as a soft-reminder.
- The second hypothesis states that there is a direct effect significantly from eco-friendly attitude to eco-friendly intention guests on the implementation of green hotel in the Borobudur Hotel The awareness of good and positive manners to undertake work environmentally friendly in the daily life eventually lead a person to perform eco-friendly-intention (Han, 2011). The 40, 14 % participants in this research already has the support of the green concept at the hotel. So that the participants would intend, try and stay in hotels that are implementing the green hotel such as The Borobudur hotel Jakarta. Participants also understood that that the asking price by the management of hotel is more expensive than the other. But in this study, participants do not mind to pay more to stay in this hotel.
- The third hypothesis which states that there is a direct effect significantly from eco friendly intention to words of mouth guests on implementation of green hotel concept in the Borobudur Hotel It is based on the answer from the respondents that are willing to share their experiences during the stay at Borobudur Hotel Jakarta. By seeing the green concept that has been done in this hotel, positively the respondents will support by spreading this information to family and friends. Respondents also do not mind to influence others that they knew for staying at Borobudur Hotel Jakarta, especially peoples which also has the same or similar attitude and intention to preserve the natural resources and to support the activities of environmentally friendly
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