(Definition, Criteria and Award – Certification from Green Hotel)
Definition of Green Hotel
- Green Hotel Association (2014)
Green hotels are environmentally-friendly properties whose managers are eager to institute programs that save water, save energy and reduce solid waste—while saving money—to help protect our one and only earth
- Tourism Council Australia (1998)
The idea of green hotel is to provide natural accommodation and facility including green services, green products, and fresh and comfortable environment
- Lee Ni (2002)
Green hotel is a hotel which provides both facilities and services with the idea of environmental protection (as cited in Chen & Chen, 2012, p.2).
- Kasim (2004)
Green hotel as incorporates socio-economic factors where the hotel operates in a responsible manner towards its employees, the local community, the local culture, and the surrounding ecology
- Watkins (1994, p.70)
Green hotels as those that show concern for the environment (as cited in Millar & Bongulo, 2011, p.10)
- ASEAN Tourism Standard (2007)
Green hotel is a hotel which is environmentally-friendly and adopts energy conservation measures
- Iwanowski (2003)
Green hotel as an environmentally sensitive hotel that operates its business in a manner that minimizes degradation of the environment (as cited in Zengeni et al., 2013, p.2).
- Manaktola and Jauhari (2007)
Green hotel as lodging facility committed to ecological practices such as saving of water, energy and waste (as cited in Zengeni et al., 2013, p.2 and Kim, 2009, p.22).
To conclude above, a green hotel’s goal is to introduce the idea of environmental protection. The core spirit of green hotel aims to reduce environmental impacts and energy consumption while providing products and services to customers.
Fundamental or Attributes of Green Hotel
Green hotels, also called eco-friendly hotels, ecologically friendly hotels, or environmentally friendly hotels, are defined a variety of ways (Millar & Bongulo, 2011). The specific areas of focus are energy efficiency, recycling, water conversation, and clean air practices (Bohdanowicz, 2005; 2006 cited in Zengeni, 2013, p.2 and Kim 2009, p.22). Refer to Page (2013, p.176) green hotel must practice three basic criteria which are educating the tourist, purchasing activities, and management system. According to Green Globe (2015) criteria are organised into four key themes; Sustainable Management, Social/Economic, Cultural Heritage and Environment.
According to ASEAN Tourism Standard (2007, p.5) there are 11 major criteria to provide and a key for ASEAN Green Hotel Standard which are (www.asean.org):
(1) Environmental policy and actions for hotel operations
(2) Use of green products
(3) Collaboration with the community and local organization
(4) Human resource development
(5) Solid waste management
(6) Energy efficiency
(7) Water efficiency
(8) Air quality management
(9) Noise pollution control
(10) Wastewater treatment and management
(11) Toxic and chemical substance and disposal management
According to (Indonesia) National Green Hotel Awards classified green hotel into two criteria (www.jogyanews.com and www.indonesia.travel):
(1) 25% green building (eco friendly material)
(2) 75% green management system (tools, equipment, electricity and waste efficiency)
PROPER assess Green Hotel based on two categories; obliged compliance and beyond compliance (www.proper.menlh.go.id):
(1) PROPER obliged compliance criteria, consist of:
a. Document report
b. Control for water pollution
c. Control for air pollution
d. Management for Hazardous and Toxic waste / B3 (Bahan Berbahaya dan Beracun)
e. Control for seawater pollution
f. Potential for land degradation criteria
(2) PROPER beyond compliance criteria, consist of:
a. Environment management system
b. Energy efficiency
c. Emission reduction
d. Implementation of reduce, reuse, recycle of hazardous and toxic waste (B3)
e. Implementation of reduce, reuse, recycle of solid non hazardous and toxic waste (non B3) f. Water conservation and Waste water pollution load reduction
g. Protection of biodiversity
h. Community development program
PROPER rate the business performances and/or activities into five criteria:
Gold PROPER certificate is given for businesses and/or activities that have consistently demonstrated environmentalexcellence in terms of production or service processes, conducting business ethically and responsibly towards society.
Green PROPER certificate is given for businesses and/or activities that have performed environmental management beyond compliance through the implementation of environmental management systems, efficient utilization of resources and adequately implement community development programs.
Blue PROPER certificate is given for businesses and/or activities that have performed environmental management as required in accordance with any applicable laws.
Red PROPER certificate denotes that the environmental management effort does not meet the requirements stipulated in the law.
Black PROPER certificate is given for businesses and/or activities that intentionally perform any act or omission that leads to pollution or environmental damage and violations of laws and regulations applicable or not carrying out administrative sanctions handed down to them.
California Department of General Services (2014, p.1) for California Green Lodging Program in the subject of Green Best Practices for hotel classified into 10 criteria, which are (www.dgs.ca.gov):
- Commitment to environmental practices
- Recycling and reuse
- Energy efficiency and conservation
- Water efficiency and conservation
- Pest management
- Hazardous and Toxic substances
EarthCheck Certification uses 10 key performance-based platforms that is supported by a range of KRAs and benchmarking indicators for design and construction of sustainability and green hotel which include (www.earthcheck.org):
(1) Greenhouse Gas Emissions
(2) Energy Efficiency, Conservation and Management
(3) Management of Freshwater and Stormwater Resources
(4) Ecosystem Conservation and Management
(5) Social and Cultural Issues Management
(6) Land Use Planning and Management
(7) Air Quality and Noise Control
(8) Waste Water Management
(9) Solid Waste Management
(10) Environmentally Harmful Substances
From all point above, can be conclude that there are at least five similar fundamental practice for green hotel operations which are energy efficiency, water efficiency, waste (solid and water) management, hazardous management, and environmental initiative.
Awards and Certifications of Green Hotel
Green practices in Indonesia conducted as compliance from Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia No 27 tahun 2012 that construct about Environment Permit of AMDAL (Analisis Mengenai Dampak Lingkungan) or Indonesian Environment Feasibility Assessment. There are several certifications in either green practice, sustainable, or environment subject. Here are some awards and certifications of green hotel and sustainability hotel practices:
1. Green Hotel Award
This award issued by ASEAN Tourism Council on two year basis, initiated in 2007 as a form of appreciation and recognition give to hotel industry whose operations are based on environmentally-friendly principles and adopt energy conservation measure refer to ASEAN Green Hotel Standards. The primary objective of the award is to provide the well-deserved recognition to hotels that go beyond conventional practices and embark on green and environment friendly measures supporting responsible tourism (www.asean.org)
2. National Green Hotel Award
This award issued by Indonesia Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy on two year basis, initiated in 2011 as a form of appreciation and recognition of Indonesia’s hotel industry whose apply the concept of green hotel (www.indonesia.travel).
3. PROPER Certification (Program Penilaian Peringkat Kinerja Perusahaan Dalam Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup)
This certification issued by Indonesia Ministry of Environment. PROPER is a certification of recognition for industry that adopts environmental practices (www.proper.menlh.go.id)
4. Eco-Hotel Management System Certification
This certification issued by PT TUV Rheinland Indonesia, a recognized certification body for tourism industry by Indonesia Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy in the aspects of food hygiene sanitation, energy audit and eco-hotel & resort management system (www.tuv.com).
5. Earth check
Earth check certificate issued by EarthCheck. EarthCheck is the world’s leading scientific benchmarking certification and advisory group for travel and tourism since 1987 based in Australia, which provides a framework to manage risks and reduce operational overheads through the implementation of the Benchmarking Programme and Company Standard. These programmes enable quantitative reporting and evaluation of risks whilst identifying areas for operational savings.
6. Green Globe
Green Globe is the global certification for sustainable tourism. It applies for companies and organizations who are committed to making positive contributions to people and planet. Green Globe’s International Standard for Sustainable Tourism was the first standard developed by and for the travel & tourism over 20 years ago. Today Green Globe’s Standard is recognized as the highest level of sustainability certification by leaders in green travel and responsible & eco tourism. Certified Member status is awarded to Green Globe members that are certified against all requisite criteria within the Green Globe Standard for Travel & Tourism (or their sectorial Standard). Certification is confirmed annualy when more than 50% of the criteria’s related indicators are achieved. Certified Members must also complete independent and mandatory onsite and desktop audits in alternating years. (www.greenglobe.com).
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