How to cite this article:

Wiyana, Tri., Lusia, Erma., Khrisnanto, Iwan., & Yuniarso. Ari. (2018). Impact of Tourist Attractions on Visitor Loyalty: Evidence from Taman Mini Indonesia Indah. Presented at The 5th International Conference on Management, Hospitality & Tourism and Accounting 2018 (IMHA 2018). 3-4 September 2018. Bina Nusantara University. To be published in Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities (JSSH)- Scopus Indexed


Impact of Tourist Attractions on Visitor Loyalty: Evidence from Taman Mini Indonesia Indah

Tri Wiyana, Erma Lusia, Iwan Khrisnanto, and Ari Yuniarso

Hotel Management Department, Faculty of Economics and Communication

Bina Nusantara University

Jl. KH. Syahdan No.9, Palmerah, Jakarta 11480, Indonesia

Phone number +62215345830, Fax number +62215300244



Taman Mini Indonesia Indah (TMII) is a theme park of the Indonesian cultural theme park in Jakarta, Indonesia. The purpose of this study is to find out how much influence the tourist attraction on visitor loyalty in TMII. The research method used in this research is a quantitative method. The analytical tool used is descriptive analysis and simple linear regression analysis. The results obtained through this study indicate that the tourist attraction gives influence to the loyalty of visitors. From the results of simple linear regression analysis obtained correlation coefficient value of 0.220 and significant value 0.05 which states that there is a strong relationship level and significant influence. The value of the regression coefficient variable of this tourist attraction is arrangement of activity or spectacle that felt unique so that it can attract visitor interest to come to TMII. The uniqueness of the attractions available in TMII promote the richness of culture, diversity of flora and fauna, and the attractions of some rides can attract visitors to visit again.

 Keywords: TMII, Attractions, Destinaiton Attribute, Tourist Loyalty, Revisit Intention


Nowadays tourist attractions are getting more and more, therefore the owners of the tourist places compete to make a strategy for the sights they manage to be interesting and the interest of the visitors to visit it. Over time, the interest of the community will be the biggest tourist attractions due to the need of refreshing places and interest in the sights. The fierce competition among tourist destinations allied to the tourist’s requirements, implied that the brand of a tourism destination becomes crucial due to their potential development (Ribeiro & Costa, 2013).

The concept of destination attractiveness and its measurement have received much attention from tourism researchers, practitioners and policymakers. Tourism has been an important factor in the world economy, the WTO declares that tourism provided almost the 10% of world GDP in 2015.  Due to its important contribution to the economic growth, tourism has experienced a steady expansion and diversification, and cities around the world are relying on tourism as an important source of revenue. The WTO (2016) points out the indisputable leadership position of certain regions and countries that have reached a high level of specialization or whose specific features and elements make them the most attractive destinations for tourists. The top three consists of France, the USA and Spain. Tourism is one of the fastest-growing industries in the world and the main source of foreign income for a significant number of developing countries (Cucculelli & Goffi, 2015)

Taman Mini Indonesia Indah (TMII), hereinafter called is Taman Mini is a theme park of the Indonesian cultural theme park in East Jakarta, Indonesia, almost every tribe has different shapes and building styles, not even rarely one ethnic group has more than one type of traditional buildings. The building or traditional architecture they create is always a background of environmental conditions and culture owned. In TMII, the picture is realized through the Regional Pavilion, which represents the ethnic groups located in 34 Indonesian Provinces (Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, 2018).

Table 1. Favorite Destination Jakarta Year 2016

Destination Visitors
Ancol (beaches, resorts, games) 17.9 million
Ragunan (Zoo) 5.2 million
Taman Mini Indonesia Indah (culture, education, games) 5 million
Monas (education) 1.9 million
Others 1.2 million

 Resource: (Katadata Indonesia, 2018)

Taman Mini has as chief mission the preservation and development of the various Indonesian cultures as a medium to strengthen the nation’s unity and integrity and to instill these values especially in the young generation. To further express Indonesia’s tolerance and peaceful coexistence among the different religions in the archipelago here stand in a row the different houses of worship that are still actively used. Taman Mini is a good introduction to what Indonesia has to offer in diversity and culture. During weekends and holidays Taman Mini is an ideal theme park for families to become more acquainted with other regional cultures. The number of visitors who more in the holiday season of course bring adverse effects, such as: garbage, damaged facilities, and long queues. Furthermore, (Egglestone, et al., 2010) explains that, usually, when visitors arrive at an amusement park, they are overwhelmed with various attractions, so they can not experience it all within the limited time available and, in some cases, due to the length of time. Queue, therefore, choosing the right place is an important factor in the overall experience.

Destination attributes that exist in Taman Mini greatly determine visitor loyalty. Loyalty can be a repeat visit or recommend to friends, relatives or colleagues revisit Taman Mini. Destination attributes of the  pull  factors are  important  for some reasons as  tourists compare the possible  destinations they can visit and  make  their decisions according  to the  attributes  a  destination  have (Kim, 2014). Loyalty can be a repeat visit or recommend to friends, relatives or colleagues to revisit Taman Mini, The destination loyalty indicators can be ranked according to the mean average from high to low as follow: to recommend the visit, to say positive things, to revisit in the next three years, to refer the information, and to plan to visit regularly (Wongleedee, 2016).  While the significance order of the dimensions according to their direct influence on the required loyalty towards the destination, i.e., Coming back to the destination and spreading positive references to the destination, is as follows: (1) well-being, (2) image, (3) services, and conclude that overall satisfaction directly influences loyalty towards the destination (Rygolva, Rasovska, Sacha, & Marakova, 2018).

Destination attributes can pull one of some of the tourism supply components such as attractions or destinations. The concept of tourism destination attractiveness does not constitute a new topic in the scientific literature in the field of tourism. The attractiveness of the area does not only depend on the characteristics of its corresponding site and the local population, but also from the tourist cognitive image perception of the destination (Dimitrov, Stankova, Vasenska, & Uzunova, 2017).

Based on the observed phenomenon both from the literature sources and the observation of the researcher directly, then the problem formulation in this research is “How is the influence of attraction to visitor loyalty in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah? The purpose of this research is to know the attraction aspect affecting visitor loyalty. The research method used is a quantitative approach to simple regression analysis.


  1. Attractions of Taman Mini Indonesia Indah

A tourist destination is required to continue to improve its quality and develop its components, to win the competition one of them is from the attribute side of the destination. There are four groups (factors) of attributes that describe positive image perceptions of Batu city as a tourist destination: (1) tourist attraction; (2) quality of location; (3) local citizens and (4) supporting factors. Demographically, there is no different perception of the image attributes, except that tourists from different places of origin perceive a Batu city image differently (Martaleni & Gunadi, 2017).

Many interesting attractions held in Taman Mini, of course associated with the culture to increase the love of the homeland, the findings help destination management organizations to better understand visitors’ preference for cultural centers and therefore to improve visitors’ cultural experience (Zeng , 2017). Taman Mini also has theater performances like Tanah Airku Theater which is the first theater in Indonesia equipped with artistic stage technology. Theater Tanah Airku is a blend of aesthetics between Indonesia and International, motivation should be regarded as a construct determined by a complex combination of drivers and recommends that theatre organizations invest time and money in customized motivational segmentation and in enhancing the audience experience (Walmsley , 2011). Taman Mini is also a vehicle for family education and recreation, in the management of Smart Park, there is still a gap between tourism demand and supply, so the tourism experience has not been maximized to its full potential (Wijayanti, Damanik, Fandeli, & Sudarmadji, 2017).

  1. Destination Attribute

The new knowledge to tourism literature on park destination attractiveness as perceived by tourists’ and recommend that for park managers to sustain park attractiveness, security and uniqueness and imperative attributes in meeting tourists needs and wants. Also variety of wildlife attractions and their close proximity to tourists are also important (Ariya, Wishitemi, & Sitati, 2017). A tourist attraction must have attributes of inherent tourist destinations that can be an attraction that can make visitors come to visit the tourist destinations, loyal visitors will have the desire to come back to these tourist destinations, the results showed that all the five attributes were positively perceived by respondents. However, the most positive perception was towards the relaxation followed by the location (Al Shwayat, Baderneh, & Feher, 2017).

The first attribute is attraction is the most important component for a tourist attraction, Further (Swarbrooke, 2002) describes the following attractions categories: “Attraction can be split into four main types : (1) Features within the natural environment ; (2) Human-made building, structures and sites that were designed for a purpose other than attracting visitors, such as religious worship, but which now attract substantial numbers of visitors who use them as leisure amenities ; (3) Human-made building, structures and sites that are designed to attract visitors and are purpose-build to accomodate their needs, such as theme parks. ; and (4) Special events”.

  1. Tourist Loyalty

The main customers of a tourist destination are visitors. Many definitions or restrictions on visitors include among others the World Tourism Organization in International Recommendations for Tourism Statistics 2008 as follows: (1) Visitor is a traveler taking a trip to a main destination outside his/her usual environment, for less than a year, for any main purpose (business, leisure or other personal purpose) other than to be employed by a resident entity in the country or place visited. These trips taken by visitors qualify as tourism trips. Tourism refers to the activity of visitors; (2) A visitor (domestic, inbound or outbound) is classified as a tourist (or overnight visitor) if his/her trip includes an overnight stay, or as a same-day visitor (or excursionist) otherwise.

Visitors are an important component of a tourist attraction. One of the important objectives of every tourist attraction is to create loyal customers or visitors because loyal visitors can support the development of a tourist attraction. The customer satisfaction with concretion has a positive effect on overall travel satisfaction and customer loyalty to travel professionals. There is also evidence that overall travel satisfaction positively affects customer loyalty to service provider (Loncaric, Prodan, & Dlacic, 2017). A tourist attraction can also achieve the competitive advantage of one of them by maintaining repeated visitors and repeat visitors is a table market for a destination, the new model offers  new  relationships  between  antecedents  (destination  image,  perceived value, specific novelty seeking, and distance to destination)  and both of  satisfaction  and  revisit  intention.  Revisit intention in turn is suggested to be measured in a temporal approach (Mat Som & Badarneh, 2011).

  1. Factors Revisit Intention

In this inquiring of the satisfaction tourists got from visiting the destination, a special look was put on the one of satisfaction versus loyalty. Clusters of tourists were also identified and characterized in relation to satisfaction levels and loyalty intentions. These analyses provide a useful background in the planning of future tourist marketing strategies (do Valle, Silva, Mendes, & Guerreiro, 2006). According (Zabkar, Brench, & Dmitropic, 2010) to the attribute attribute factors affect the perceived quality, which then affects satisfaction, and attracts the latter causing the intention of returning. Another study by (Som, MArzuki, Yousefi, & Abu Khalifeh, 2012), revealed that the key factors that affect repeat visitors in Sabah, Malaysia were destination image, modern environment, weather and natural attractions. Also, the study assessed the major motives for revisiting of Sabah, Malaysia, which were are relaxation and recreation, enhance relation, enhance social, fulfilling prestige, and escaping from the daily routine.

In current tourism literatures, exploring tourists’ visit intention in engaging diversity types of tourism is one of the main foci (Lam & Hsu, 2006). While other studies according (Nafisah & Suhud, 2016) novelty seek and satisfaction are significant to affect the intention of return while the perceived value is significant to affect satisfaction. On the other hand, new searches and goal images are insignificant to influence satisfaction and goal images are insignificant to influence back intentions. The study (Hasan, Ismail, & Islam, 2017) concludes that the area is dominated by both the quantitative and the qualitative research, and a lack of appropriate theoretical foundation is a major problem to understand the common risk dimensions and their effect on tourist revisit intention. Therefore, the integration of satisfaction and attitude towards revisit with the relationship between tourist risk perceptions and revisit intention in a single framework seems rational to provide an insight for new research approach.


To fulfill the research aims, a sample of Taman Mini tourists is selected purposely in two phases. In the first phase, a subset of sample is chosen to test and validate the questionnaire, while in the second phase another subset of sample is selected and was combined with the one obtained in the first phase to form the whole sample. Sampling technique in this research is Non probability sampling that is by accidental sampling. Of the 210 visitors encountered 60 researchers were first time visitors and 150 people were repeat visitors. The sample in this study is 150 people who have visited more than one time or called repeat visitor.

Data analysis in this research uses Inferential Statistic that is Parametric Statistic because the data obtained in the form of interval data and normal distribution. Prior to analysis of the indicators used, the first test instrument to measure the validity and reliability of the instrument to be used in research. Testing is done by using software SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solution) version 20. The research location is Taman Mini and implemented in November 2015.

Questionnaires were constructed and constructed based on previous research. The validity and reliability of this questionnaire were tested and improved using the first phase sample data. The remaining attribute is used for further analysis. The exploratory factor analysis along with the statistical procedure is used to construct the factors of this attribute. Simple Regression Analysis is used to investigate the relationship of attraction with tourist loyalty in Taman Mini.

Measurement of the variables in this study using a likert scale adjusted to the needs of research into 1-5. The research variables that will be measured using this scale, have a gradation from positive (highest) to negative (lowest). For test purposes, the mentioned variables need to be translated into operational variables. The operational variables in this study are as follows:

Table 2. Operational Definition of Variables

Attractions (X) Indicator
  1.      Traditional house that can represent the original custom house
  2.      Museums available for visitors
  3.      A traveling car that supports visitor activity
  4.      Special occasions such as festivals or art performances
  5.      The beauty and diversity of flora and fauna
  6.      Availability of places to relax for visitors
  7.      The rides are available for visitors
Tourist Loyalty (Y) 1.      Provide recommendations to others
  2.      Number of visits
  3.      Repeat visit if there are new attributes

Resources: Researcher

Hypothesis testing in this study was conducted to test the proposed hypothesis accepted or rejected. Based on the importance of maintaining loyalty of Taman Mini visitors, this study aims to determine the attributes that influence the loyalty of Taman Mini visitors. With the aim of the research, the hypothesis of this research can be formulated as follows:

H0: There is no impact of attraction on visitor loyalty
H1: There is an impact of attraction on visitor loyalty


Respondents were asked to fill out the questionnaires given to them. Profile of respondents based on the questionnaire collected is presented in the following table:

Table 3. Profile of respondents

Demographic Factors Variables %
Gender Male 42
Female 58
Age Less than or equal to 18 years 3
19-22 years old 22
Older than 22 years old 75
Education Low (Junior High) 31
Middle (Diploma 1 year) 5
University (Bachelor and above) 64
Revisit Intention Less than or equal to 5 times 58
6-9 times 15
Older than 9 times 27
Travel Destination Recreation 85
Business 15

Resource: Research data

The characteristics and demographics of the respondents illustrate the tendency of the respondent to be female; respondents with the most number were in the vulnerable age> 22 years. Of the 150 respondents, the most frequent visits are 1-5 times. Housing becomes the main consideration in choosing the destination because visitors consider the distance and travel time to the tourist location. Therefore most of the respondents still choose the location of tourism in the city and as many as 64 respondents only spend one day in the tour because they have to return to the activity in the next day. Although the respondents’ educational backgrounds are different, but the main reason they visit Taman Mini is for recreation or fun, while accompanying family members is also one of the goals of visiting Taman Mini. Furthermore, in the classical assumption test process the data used has met the requirements of where the data distribution is normal, independent variables are free from strong correlation and the data has variations so that it can meet heterogeneous test.

The selection of parameter calculation is a description of basic statistical calculation which is useful to know quantitative information from the data obtained from the existing research results, so that with the parameters that have been known to help some calculations that can help the initial analysis of the research, detail as follows:

Table 4. Distribution of Descriptive Statistics

N Minimum Maximum Mean Standard Deviation
Attractions 150 2.43 3.86 3.0170 0.26946
Tourist Loyalty 150 2.67 4.00 3.187 0.28735

Resource: SPSS data processing

The effect of Attraction on visitor loyalty, seen in testing of regression coefficients.

Table 5. Constants and Regression Coefficients

Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients
B Std. Error Beta t Sig.
(Constant) ,037 ,135 ,274 ,785
Attractions ,220 ,061 ,206 3,606 ,000

Resources: SPSS data Processing

Based on the calculation results can be seen the value of the constant (a) is 0.037; while the regression coefficient value is b = 0.220. After knowing the significance of the regression coefficient then the next stage of forming the regression equation. The model or equation is as follows:

Y = a + bx

Y = 0.037 + 0.220 X; with Y: Tourist Loyalty, X: Attractions

It means that based on known regression equation can be interpreted if (a) If there is an increase to the attraction variable, it will add 0.220 on the loyalty of tourists.

In this variable indicates that the attraction variable has a significant influence. This is due to the fulfillment of the requirement for significance where the p-value <0.05. Attractions are arrangement of activities or performances that are unique to attract visitors to come to Taman Mini. The uniqueness of the attractions available in Taman Mini promotes cultural richness, diversity of flora and fauna; and the attractions of some of the rides can attract visitors to come back. One example of a useful improvement effort in increasing the attraction to visitors to visit the museum in Taman Mini by providing a guide that controls the history and philosophy of the objects in the museum, create a good queue system and keep no queue pile for visitors who will use the train facilities and renew events appropriate to the entertainment required by visitors. Management of good attractions and improvements in accordance with the voice of the customer will affect the loyalty of visitors. Therefore, the need for innovation or a new breakthrough to create an interesting concept of attraction so that visitors will visit Taman Mini with a new attraction show. Attractions are ranked third because the addition of attractions in Taman Mini is felt still less by visitors.

This t test aims to test whether there is influence of attraction to the variable of tourist loyalty:

H0: β1> 0.05 means there is no effect of attraction to loyalty of visitor of Taman Mini

H1: β1≤ 0.05 means there is influence of attraction to loyalty of visitor of Taman Mini

Rejection region H0: T Test = 3,606; and T table = T0.05 (150-1) = T 0.05 (149) = 1.960. Decision: β1 <0.05 then reject H0 accept Ha, meaning there is influence of attraction to tourist loyalty.


After performing the process of calculation and quantitative analysis by presenting information data of research results in the form of tables and pie charts on the demographic profile of respondents; test of classical assumption and regression analysis hence obtained facts in the form of profile of respondent; demographics of respondents and the behavior and habits that visitors make when choosing Taman Mini Indonesia Indah as a tourist destination while filling the holiday.

Attractions have a value of regression coefficient of 0.220 and become attributes that have a significant effect on visitor loyalty. This is because the addition of attractions in TMII is still felt less by visitors, so TMII must continue to innovate to create the concept of attraction more attractive to visitors.

After doing a search and get the facts quantitatively then the suggestions that can be considered as an opportunity for improvement by some parties by using the results of this study as a reference are as follows: “This study by using one of the tourist destination attribute is the attraction to know the impact on the loyalty of existing visitors. Therefore it is necessary to do further research on other variables that in the attribute of tourism destinations. This allows the results to show visitor loyalty in Taman Mini formed by several variables that can represent the conditions of future research”.


The authors are grateful to Prof. Bahtiar Saleh Abbas as Director of Research and Technology Transfer Office and Dezie Leonarda Warganegara, Ph.D. as the Dean of the Faculty of Economics and Communication, as well as the Hotel Management Lecturer who provides the facilities required for the preparation of this paper.


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